Medline ® Abstracts for References 43,44
of 'Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma'
Is reactive airways dysfunction syndrome a variant of occupational asthma?
Gautrin D, Boulet LP, Boutet M, Dugas M, Bhérer L, L'Archevêque J, Laviolette M, CôtéJ, Malo JL
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;93(1 Pt 1):12.
BACKGROUND: Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma is a syndrome that leaves subjects with asthma-like symptoms after one or more exposures to a high concentration of an irritant substance. The degree of reversibility of airway obstruction in subjects with RADS is nevertheless unknown, as is the degree of associated lesions at the airway level.
METHODS: We compared the acute reversibility of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after inhalation of albuterol (200 micrograms) in 15 subjects with RADS (12 cases caused by chlorine inhalation) with that of 30 subjects with occupational asthma (OA) caused by various agents. They were paired according to baseline airway obstruction (61% and 63% of predicted value in the RADS and OA groups), requirement for medication (bronchodilator only--7 of 15 subjects with RADS and 14 of 30 subjects with OA--as compared with bronchodilator + inhaled steroids in 8 of 15 subjects with RADS and 16 of 30 subjects with OA, respectively), and interval since removal from exposure (means of 30 and 24 months in the RADS and OA groups). In addition, five nonsmokers with RADS who had not received inhaled steroids underwent bronchoscopy with lavage and bronchial biopsies less than 2 years after the exposure.
RESULTS: The percentage increase in FEV1 over baseline after inhalation of albuterol was 10% +/- 9% in the RADS group and 19% +/- 16% in the OA group (p = 0.005). Only 2 of 15 subjects (13%) with RADS and 12 of 30 subjects (40%) with OA showed an improvement in FEV1 of 20% or greater after inhalation of albuterol. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increased number of cells with a predominance of lymphocytes, and biopsy specimens showed increased basement membrane thickness in the five subjects with RADS who underwent bronchoscopy.
CONCLUSION: Subjects with RADS are generally left with less airway reversibility than those with OA. We suggest that this difference is secondary to distinct pathologic changes.
Department of Chest Medicine, Sacré-Coeur Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
AEOL10150: a novel therapeutic for rescue treatment after toxic gas lung injury.
McGovern T, Day BJ, White CW, Powell WS, Martin JG
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Mar;50(5):602-8. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
New therapeutics designed as rescue treatments after toxic gas injury such as from chlorine (Cl(2)) are an emerging area of interest. We tested the effects of the metalloporphyrin catalytic antioxidant AEOL10150, a compound that scavenges peroxynitrite, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and has SOD and catalase-like activities, on Cl(2)-induced airway injury. Balb/C mice received 100ppm Cl(2) gas for 5 min. Four groups were studied: Cl(2) only, Cl(2) followed by AEOL10150 1 and 9 h after exposure, AEOL10150 only, and control. Twenty-four hours after Cl(2) gas exposure airway responsiveness to aerosolized methacholine (6.25-50mg/ml) was measured using a small-animal ventilator. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to assess airway inflammation and protein. Whole lung tissue was assayed for 4-hydroxynonenal. In separate groups, lungs were collected at 72 h after Cl(2) injury to evaluate epithelial cell proliferation. Mice exposed to Cl(2) showed a significantly higher airway resistance compared to control, Cl(2)/AEOL10150, or AEOL10150-only treated animals in response to methacholine challenge. Eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were elevated in BAL of Cl(2)-exposed mice. AEOL10150 attenuated the increases in neutrophils and macrophages. AEOL10150 prevented Cl(2)-induced increase in BAL fluid protein. Chlorine induced an increase in the number of proliferating airwayepithelial cells, an effect AEOL10150 attenuated. 4-Hydroxynonenal levels in the lung were increased after Cl(2) and this effect was prevented with AEOL10150. AEOL10150 is an effective rescue treatment for Cl(2)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, injury-induced airway epithelial cell regeneration, and oxidative stress.
Meakins Christie Laboratories, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H2X 2P2, Canada.