Medline ® Abstracts for References 41,43,44,57-60

of 'Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma'

41
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Long-term pathologic consequences of acute irritant-induced asthma.
AU
Takeda N, Maghni K, Daigle S, L'Archevêque J, Castellanos L, Al-Ramli W, Malo JL, Hamid Q
SO
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(5):975.
 
BACKGROUND: Acute irritant-induced asthma (IrIa) or reactive airways dysfunction syndrome is caused by exposure to a high concentration of an agent. The long-term pathologic consequences of IrIa remain thus far unknown.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to investigate the chronic airway inflammation and remodeling that occur in association with IrIa.
METHODS: Ten subjects with a history of IrIa (mean interval of 10.9 years, minimum of 4 years, since the inhalational accident) underwent bronchoscopy followed by bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial biopsies. Immunologic and morphologic data from patients with IrIa were compared with those of patients with mild to moderate asthma as well as healthy controls.
RESULTS: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis showed increased eosinophil and neutrophil counts in 30% and 60% of subjects with IrIa, respectively. In the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage, we found a significant increase in the majority of mediators compared with healthy subjects and a significant increase in eosinophilic cationic protein, IL-8, basic fibroblast growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinase 1 compared with control patients with asthma. Evaluation of basement membrane thickness (subepithelial fibrosis) demonstrated a significant increase in patients with IrIa compared with healthy subjects and subjects with asthma. Basement membrane thickness also significantly correlated with the PC(20) value. The epithelial cell detachment showed an elevated although not significant trend compared with subjects with asthma and control subjects. Immunocytochemical analysis demonstrated increases in the number of eosinophil cationic protein and TGF-beta1-positive cells compared with healthy controls.
CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence of a significant eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation as well as remodeling in IrIa many years after an inhalational accident.
AD
Meakins-Christie Laboratories, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
PMID
43
TI
Is reactive airways dysfunction syndrome a variant of occupational asthma?
AU
Gautrin D, Boulet LP, Boutet M, Dugas M, Bhérer L, L'Archevêque J, Laviolette M, CôtéJ, Malo JL
SO
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1994;93(1 Pt 1):12.
 
BACKGROUND: Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma is a syndrome that leaves subjects with asthma-like symptoms after one or more exposures to a high concentration of an irritant substance. The degree of reversibility of airway obstruction in subjects with RADS is nevertheless unknown, as is the degree of associated lesions at the airway level.
METHODS: We compared the acute reversibility of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after inhalation of albuterol (200 micrograms) in 15 subjects with RADS (12 cases caused by chlorine inhalation) with that of 30 subjects with occupational asthma (OA) caused by various agents. They were paired according to baseline airway obstruction (61% and 63% of predicted value in the RADS and OA groups), requirement for medication (bronchodilator only--7 of 15 subjects with RADS and 14 of 30 subjects with OA--as compared with bronchodilator + inhaled steroids in 8 of 15 subjects with RADS and 16 of 30 subjects with OA, respectively), and interval since removal from exposure (means of 30 and 24 months in the RADS and OA groups). In addition, five nonsmokers with RADS who had not received inhaled steroids underwent bronchoscopy with lavage and bronchial biopsies less than 2 years after the exposure.
RESULTS: The percentage increase in FEV1 over baseline after inhalation of albuterol was 10% +/- 9% in the RADS group and 19% +/- 16% in the OA group (p = 0.005). Only 2 of 15 subjects (13%) with RADS and 12 of 30 subjects (40%) with OA showed an improvement in FEV1 of 20% or greater after inhalation of albuterol. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increased number of cells with a predominance of lymphocytes, and biopsy specimens showed increased basement membrane thickness in the five subjects with RADS who underwent bronchoscopy.
CONCLUSION: Subjects with RADS are generally left with less airway reversibility than those with OA. We suggest that this difference is secondary to distinct pathologic changes.
AD
Department of Chest Medicine, Sacré-Coeur Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
PMID
44
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AEOL10150: a novel therapeutic for rescue treatment after toxic gas lung injury.
AU
McGovern T, Day BJ, White CW, Powell WS, Martin JG
SO
Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Mar;50(5):602-8. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
 
New therapeutics designed as rescue treatments after toxic gas injury such as from chlorine (Cl(2)) are an emerging area of interest. We tested the effects of the metalloporphyrin catalytic antioxidant AEOL10150, a compound that scavenges peroxynitrite, inhibits lipid peroxidation, and has SOD and catalase-like activities, on Cl(2)-induced airway injury. Balb/C mice received 100ppm Cl(2) gas for 5 min. Four groups were studied: Cl(2) only, Cl(2) followed by AEOL10150 1 and 9 h after exposure, AEOL10150 only, and control. Twenty-four hours after Cl(2) gas exposure airway responsiveness to aerosolized methacholine (6.25-50mg/ml) was measured using a small-animal ventilator. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed to assess airway inflammation and protein. Whole lung tissue was assayed for 4-hydroxynonenal. In separate groups, lungs were collected at 72 h after Cl(2) injury to evaluate epithelial cell proliferation. Mice exposed to Cl(2) showed a significantly higher airway resistance compared to control, Cl(2)/AEOL10150, or AEOL10150-only treated animals in response to methacholine challenge. Eosinophils, neutrophils, and macrophages were elevated in BAL of Cl(2)-exposed mice. AEOL10150 attenuated the increases in neutrophils and macrophages. AEOL10150 prevented Cl(2)-induced increase in BAL fluid protein. Chlorine induced an increase in the number of proliferating airwayepithelial cells, an effect AEOL10150 attenuated. 4-Hydroxynonenal levels in the lung were increased after Cl(2) and this effect was prevented with AEOL10150. AEOL10150 is an effective rescue treatment for Cl(2)-induced airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, injury-induced airway epithelial cell regeneration, and oxidative stress.
AD
Meakins Christie Laboratories, Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC H2X 2P2, Canada.
PMID
57
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Air trapping detected on end-expiratory high-resolution computed tomography in symptomatic World Trade Center rescue and recovery workers.
AU
Mendelson DS, Roggeveen M, Levin SM, Herbert R, de la Hoz RE
SO
J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49(8):840.
 
OBJECTIVES: We utilized end-expiratory chest computed tomography (CT) to investigate air trapping (AT) in symptomatic former World Trade Center (WTC) workers, and correlated the findings with clinical, physiological, and exposure-related characteristics.
METHODS: Twenty-nine WTC workers with lower respiratory symptoms were evaluated. Clinical data included symptom inventories, quantitative respiratory symptom scores, WTC dust exposure duration, pulmonary function tests, and inspiratory and end-expiratory high-resolution chest CT scans. The latter were scored quantitatively for AT (by two methods) and interstitial changes, and those scores were correlated with the clinical data.
RESULTS: The two AT scoring methods yielded highly correlated results. AT was demonstrated in 25 of 29 patients, with scores ranging from 0 to 24 (mean, 10.6). There was a statistically significant correlation between AT and the duration of dust exposure. AT scores were significantly higher in patients with restrictive lung function data, and in lifetime nonsmokers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that AT from small airways disease may account for some of the reported clinical and pulmonary functional abnormalities in WTC dust-exposed workers, and support the use of high-resolution CT scans in the investigation and characterization of the pulmonary ailments of selected workers.
AD
Department of Radiology, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.
PMID
58
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Asthma characteristics in cleaning workers, workers in other risk jobs and office workers.
AU
Zock JP, Kogevinas M, Sunyer J, Jarvis D, Torén K, AntóJM, European Community Respiratory Health Survey
SO
Eur Respir J. 2002;20(3):679.
 
Several studies have demonstrated an excess risk for asthma among cleaning workers. The aim of this analysis was to compare clinical, immunological and functional characteristics associated with asthma in cleaners and other occupational groups. Cleaners, workers exposed to high molecular weight (MW) agents, workers exposed to low MW agents, and office workers were identified from an international community-based epidemiological study. Influence of sex, smoking, age and atopy on the relationships with asthma was investigated. Rates of respiratory symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, atopic sensitisation and lung function were compared between asthmatics from the four groups (case-case analysis). The risk for asthma in workers exposed to low MW agents was higher among nonatopics than among atopics. Case-case analysis showed no major differences in asthma characteristics between cleaners and workers exposed to high or low MW agents. Asthmatic cleaners had less atopy, more chronic bronchitis and a lower lung function as compared to office workers. Asthma in cleaning workers showed many similarities with that in workers known to be at risk for occupational asthma. Atopic sensitisation did not seem to play an important role in cleaning-related asthma.
AD
Respiratory and Environmental Health Research Unit, Institut Municipal d'lnvestigacióMèdica, Barcelona, Spain. jpzock@imim.es
PMID
59
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Irritant-associated vocal cord dysfunction.
AU
Perkner JJ, Fennelly KP, Balkissoon R, Bartelson BB, Ruttenber AJ, Wood RP 2nd, Newman LS
SO
J Occup Environ Med. 1998;40(2):136.
 
Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is a poorly understood entity that is often misdiagnosed as asthma. We report eleven cases of VCD in which there was a temporal association between VCD onset and occupational or environmental exposure. We conducted a case-control study to determine if the characteristics of irritant-exposed VCD (IVCD) cases differed from non-exposed VCD controls. Chart review of VCD patients at the authors' institution produced 11 cases that met IVCD case criteria. Thirty-three control VCD subjects were selected by age matching. There were statistical differences between the groups in ethnicity and chest discomfort. There were no statistical differences between the groups for gender, tobacco, smoking habits, symptoms, or pulmonary function parameters. Varied irritant exposures were associated with IVCD. IVCD should be considered in patients presenting with respiratory symptoms occurring after irritant exposures.
AD
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Medical and Research Center, Denver, CO 80206, USA.
PMID
60
TI
Eosinophilic bronchitis in the workplace.
AU
Quirce S
SO
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;4(2):87.
 
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to report that eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma may occur as an occupational airway disease. This condition is characterized by cough that is responsive to corticosteroids and eosinophilia detectable in the sputum, without variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness.
RECENT FINDINGS: Eosinophilic bronchitis can be regarded as an occupational respiratory disorder when it develops as a consequence of work exposures. Recently, exposure to certain occupational allergens or sensitizers, such as natural rubber latex, mushroom spores, acrylates and an epoxy resin hardener, have been reported to cause eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma. Several hypotheses have been put forward trying to explain why patients with eosinophilic bronchitis do not have airway hyperresponsiveness. It is unknown whether eosinophilic bronchitis may progress to typical occupational asthma, or if eosinophilic airway inflammation may persist when asthma symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness have waned after the cessation of exposure to the occupational agent.
SUMMARY: Eosinophilic bronchitis, like asthma, may arise from occupational exposures. The examination of induced sputum should be added to the objective monitoring of lung function during periods at work and away from work, as well as before and after specific inhalation challenges with occupational agents.
AD
Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Allergy Department, Madrid, Spain. sequirce@fjd.es
PMID