Medline ® Abstracts for References 26,28
of 'Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma'
Update on asthma and cleaning agents.
Folletti I, Siracusa A, Paolocci G
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;17(2):90.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma due to cleaning products has been known for 20 years, and the interest in this topic is still large because of the number of cleaning workers with respiratory problems. In this review, we sought to highlight the most recent findings on the relationship between exposure to cleaning products and asthma and to summarize the specific literature published between 2013 and 2016.
RECENT FINDINGS: Women are confirmed as most of workers exposed to cleaning products and have a higher frequency than men of work-related respiratory symptoms and diseases. Many cases of asthma due to cleaning products occur in healthcare occupations. The increased risk of asthma has been shown to be related to the number of years in the job and to early life disadvantage. Recent evidence suggests that predisposition to adult-onset asthma may be related to interaction between genes and occupational exposure to low-molecular weight agents/irritants. There is some evidence that an irritant mechanism is more common, although several case reports showed animmunologic mechanism (e.g. disinfectants, amine compounds, aldehydes and fragrances).
SUMMARY: The review updated recent findings on epidemiology, cleaning agents and their mechanism, and prevention of asthma due to cleaning agents. This article provides new information on the level of exposure, which is still high in professional cleaners and even more in domestic cleaners, and on the frequency of asthma in professional and domestic cleaners. An irritant mechanism is more common, although an immunological mechanism is possible, especially in healthcare workers exposed to disinfectants.
aDepartment of Medicine, Section of Occupational Medicine, Respiratory Diseases, Occupational and Environmental Toxicology bDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
Functional and biological characteristics of asthma in cleaning workers.
Vizcaya D, Mirabelli MC, Orriols R, AntóJM, Barreiro E, Burgos F, Arjona L, Gomez F, Zock JP
Respir Med. 2013 May;107(5):673-83. Epub 2013 Feb 20.
OBJECTIVES: Cleaning workers have an increased risk of asthma but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We studied functional and biological characteristics in asthmatic cleaners and compared these to healthy cleaners.
METHODS: Forty-two cleaners with a history of asthma and/or recent respiratory symptoms and 53 symptom-free controls were identified. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured and forced spirometry with reversibility testing was performed. Total IgE, pulmonary surfactant protein D and the 16 kDa Clara Cell secretory protein were measured in blood serum. Interleukins and other cytokines, growth factors, cys-leukotrienes and 8-isoprostane were measured in exhaled breath condensate. Information on occupational and domestic use of cleaning products was obtained in an interview. Associations between asthma status, specific characteristics and the use of cleaning products were evaluated using multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses.
RESULTS: Asthma was associated with an 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 1-15%) lower postbronchodilator FEV1, a higher prevalence of atopy (42% vs. 10%) and a 2.9 (CI 1.5-5.6) times higher level of total IgE. Asthma status was not associated with the other respiratory biomarkers. Most irritant products and sprays were more often used by asthmatic cleaners. The use of multiuse products, glass cleaners and polishes at work was associated with higher FeNO, particularly in controls.
CONCLUSIONS: Asthma in cleaning workers is characterised by non-reversible lung function decrement and increased total IgE. Oxidative stress, altered lung permeability and eosinophilic inflammation are unlikely to play an important underlying role, although the latter may be affected by certain irritant cleaning exposures.
Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain. email@example.com