Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,41,42
of 'Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and irritant-induced asthma'
Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS). Persistent asthma syndrome after high level irritant exposures.
Brooks SM, Weiss MA, Bernstein IL
Ten individuals developed an asthma-like illness after a single exposure to high levels of an irritating vapor, fume, or smoke. In most instances, the high level exposure was the result of an accident occurring in the workplace or a situation where there was poor ventilation and limited air exchange in the area. In all cases, symptoms developed within a few hours and often minutes after exposure. We have designated the illness as reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) because a consistent physiologic accompaniment was airways hyperreactivity. When tested, all subjects showed positive methacholine challenge tests. No documented preexisting respiratory illness was identified nor did subjects relate past respiratory complaints. In two subjects, atopy was documented, but in all others, no evidence of allergy was identified. In the majority of the cases, there was persistence of respiratory symptoms and continuation of airways hyperreactivity for more than one year and often several years after the incident. The incriminated etiologic agent varied, but all shared a common characteristic of being irritant in nature. In two cases, bronchial biopsy specimens were available, and an airways inflammatory response was noted. This investigation suggests acute high level, uncontrolled irritant exposures may cause an asthma-like syndrome in some individuals which is different from typical occupational asthma. It can lead to long-term sequelae and chronic airways disease. Nonimmunologic mechanisms seem operative in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.
Increased rates of asthma among World Trade Center disaster responders.
Kim H, Herbert R, Landrigan P, Markowitz SB, Moline JM, Savitz DA, Todd AC, Udasin IG, Wisnivesky JP
Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan;55(1):44-53. Epub 2011 Nov 8.
BACKGROUND: Studies have documented high rates of asthma symptoms among responders to the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. However, whether there are increased rates of asthma among responders compared to the general population is unknown.
METHODS: The study population consisted of a prospective cohort of 20,834 responders participating in the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program between July 2002 and December 2007. We calculated prevalence and standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) of lifetime asthma and 12-month asthma (defined as≥1 attacks in the prior 12 months) among WTC responders. The comparison population consisted of>200,000 adults who completed the National Health Interview Survey in 2000 (for pre-9/11 comparisons) and between 2002 and 2007 (for post-9/11 comparisons).
RESULTS: WTC responders were on average 43±9 years old, 86% male, 59% white, and 42% had an occupation in protective services. The lifetime prevalence of asthma in the general population was relatively constant at about 10% from 2000 to 2007. However, among WTC responders, lifetime prevalence increased from 3% in 2000, to 13% in 2002, and 19% in 2007. The age-adjusted overall SMR for lifetime asthma among WTC responders was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.8-1.9) for men and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.9-2.1) for women. Twelve-month asthma was also more frequent among WTC responders compared to the general population (SMR 2.4, 95% CI: 2.2-2.5) for men and 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.5) for women.
CONCLUSIONS: WTC responders are at an increased risk of asthma as measured by lifetime prevalence or active disease.
Department of Population Health, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.
Genes Interacting with Occupational Exposures to Low Molecular Weight Agents and Irritants on Adult-Onset Asthma in Three European Studies.
Rava M, Ahmed I, Kogevinas M, Le Moual N, Bouzigon E, Curjuric I, Dizier MH, Dumas O, Gonzalez JR, Imboden M, Mehta AJ, Tubert-Bitter P, Zock JP, Jarvis D, Probst-Hensch NM, Demenais F, Nadif R
Environ Health Perspect. 2017;125(2):207. Epub 2016 Aug 9.
BACKGROUND: The biological mechanisms by which cleaning products and disinfectants-an emerging risk factor-affect respiratory health remain incompletely evaluated. Studying genes by environment interactions (G×E) may help identify new genes related to adult-onset asthma.
OBJECTIVES: We identified interactions between genetic polymorphisms of a large set of genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and occupational exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) agents or irritants on adult-onset asthma.
METHODS: Our data came from three large European cohorts: Epidemiological Family-based Study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Disease in Adults (SAPALDIA), and European Community Respiratory Health Survey in Adults (ECRHS). A candidate pathway-based strategy identified 163 genes involved in the response to oxidative stress and potentially related to exposures to LMW agents/irritants. Occupational exposures were evaluated using an asthma job-exposure matrix and job-specific questionnaires for cleaners and healthcare workers. Logistic regression models were used to detect G×E interactions, adjusted for age, sex, and population ancestry, in 2,599 adults (mean age, 47 years; 60% women, 36% exposed, 18% asthmatics). p-Values were corrected for multiple comparisons.
RESULTS: Ever exposure to LMW agents/irritants was associated with current adult-onset asthma [OR = 1.28 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.58)]. Eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) by exposure interactions at five loci were found at p<0.005: PLA2G4A (rs932476, chromosome 1), near PLA2R1 (rs2667026, chromosome 2), near RELA (rs931127, rs7949980, chromosome 11), PRKD1 (rs1958980, rs11847351, rs1958987, chromosome 14), and PRKCA (rs6504453, chromosome 17). Results were consistent across the three studies and after accounting for smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: Using a pathway-based selection process, we identified novel genes potentially involved in adult asthma by interaction with occupational exposure. These genes play a role in the NF-κB pathway, which is involved in inflammation. Citation: Rava M, Ahmed I, Kogevinas M, Le Moual N, Bouzigon E, Curjuric I, Dizier MH, Dumas O, Gonzalez JR, Imboden M, Mehta AJ, Tubert-Bitter P, Zock JP, Jarvis D, Probst-Hensch NM, Demenais F, Nadif R. 2017. Genes interacting with occupational exposures to low molecular weight agents and irritants on adult-onset asthma in three European studies. Environ Health Perspect 125:207-214; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP376.
Inserm, U1168, VIMA: Aging and Chronic Diseases, Epidemiological and Public Health Approaches, Villejuif, France.