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Prognosis of heart failure

INTRODUCTION

Aging of the population and prolongation of the lives of cardiac patients by modern therapeutic innovations has led to an increasing incidence of heart failure (HF). Despite improvements in therapy, the mortality rate in patients with HF has remained unacceptably high [1]. (See "Epidemiology and causes of heart failure".)

The prognosis of patients with HF will be reviewed here. The many factors that can be used to predict survival and the prognosis in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular systolic or diastolic dysfunction are discussed separately. (See "Predictors of survival in heart failure due to systolic dysfunction" and "Evaluation and management of asymptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction" and "Treatment and prognosis of diastolic heart failure".)

STAGES OF HF

Heart failure is often a progressive condition, beginning with predisposing factors and leading to the development and worsening of clinical illness. There are several stages in the evolution of heart failure (HF), as outlined in the 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guideline [2]:

Stage A – At high risk for HF but without structural heart disease or symptoms of HF

Stage B – Structural heart disease but without signs or symptoms of HF

                          

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Literature review current through: Nov 2014. | This topic last updated: Nov 7, 2014.
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