Medline ® Abstracts for References 9-11
of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'
An image-based approach to understanding the physics of MR artifacts.
Morelli JN, Runge VM, Ai F, Attenberger U, Vu L, Schmeets SH, Nitz WR, Kirsch JE
Radiographics. 2011 May;31(3):849-66.
As clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging becomes more versatile and more complex, it is increasingly difficult to develop and maintain a thorough understanding of the physical principles that govern the changing technology. This is particularly true for practicing radiologists, whose primary obligation is to interpret clinical images and not necessarily to understand complex equations describing the underlying physics. Nevertheless, the physics of MR imaging plays an important role in clinical practice because it determines image quality, and suboptimal image quality may hinder accurate diagnosis. This article provides an image-based explanation of the physics underlying common MR imaging artifacts, offering simple solutions for remedying each type of artifact. Solutions that have emerged from recent technologic advances with which radiologists may not yet be familiar are described in detail. Types of artifacts discussed include those resulting from voluntary and involuntary patient motion, magnetic susceptibility, magnetic field inhomogeneities, gradient nonlinearity, standing waves, aliasing, chemical shift, and signal truncation. With an improved awareness and understanding of these artifacts, radiologists will be better able to modify MR imaging protocols so as to optimize clinical image quality, allowing greater confidence in diagnosis.
Department of Radiology, Scott and White Memorial Hospital and Clinic, Texas A&M Health Sciences Center, 2401 S 31st St, Temple, TX 76508, USA. email@example.com
AAPM/RSNA physics tutorial for residents: fundamental physics of MR imaging.
Radiographics. 2005 Jul;25(4):1087-99.
Learning the basic concepts required to understand magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a straightforward process. Although the individual concepts are simple, there are many concepts to learn and retain simultaneously; this situation may give the illusion that learning the physics of MR imaging is complicated. It is important for the radiologist who interprets MR images to understand the methods used to create the images because image contrast specifically depends on how the image data were acquired. Initial concepts include formation of magnetic fields from electric currents in loops of wire, the resonance phenomenon, the hydrogen proton and its frequency of precession, and absorption of radiofrequency energy. These concepts can then be applied to learn about T1 and T2 relaxation and contrast and how the acquisition parameters of echo time and repetition time can be used to achieve these image contrasts. Basic pulse sequences include the spin-echo, multiecho spin-echo, turbo spin-echo, inversion-recovery, and gradient-recalled-echo sequences.
Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Rd, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Elster AD: Questions and Answers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging www.mri-q.com (Accessed on July 15, 2015).
no abstract available