Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.

Medline ® Abstract for Reference 6

of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'

The Wellcome Foundation lecture, 1981. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine: physical principles.
Andrew ER
Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1985;225(1241):399.
In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) has become a means of providing excellent images of the interior of the human body which are proving useful in medical practice. The development of n.m.r. imaging, much of which was pioneered in Britain, is outlined. Proton image resolution of human anatomy is comparable with X-ray computed tomography images, but without the hazard of ionizing radiation. There is improved soft tissue discrimination and pathological contrast through the basic imaging parameters of the proton density and the relaxation times T1 and T2, whose differences from one tissue to another are exploited by use of appropriate radiofrequency pulse sequences. Images may be obtained directly of transverse, coronal and sagittal sections of the head and body. Single slices or multiple slices may be imaged and imaging may be done in three dimensions. The lecture describes the more important imaging techniques and gives illustrative examples of images obtained. The efficient use of time in n.m.r. imaging is discussed, particularly mentioning the multiecho-multislice procedure and the development of real-time n.m.r. imaging. Magnetic field strengths in current use for proton n.m.r. imaging range from 0.02 to 2 T. At the lower end of the range resistive magnets are used, while for higher fields superconducting magnets are needed. A considerable improvement in image quality is obtained by use of special receiver coils.