Medline ® Abstract for Reference 38
of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'
MR imaging of metallic implants and materials: a compilation of the literature.
AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988;151(4):811.
Ferromagnetic metallic implants and materials are regarded as contraindications for MR imaging because of the potential risks associated with their movement or displacement. To date, 14 published articles have evaluated the ferromagnetic qualities of 127 different metallic implants and other materials, including aneurysm and hemostatic clips (32); dental implants and materials (five); intravascular coils, filters, and stents (13); ear implants (14); prosthetic heart valves (29); orthopedic implants and materials (eight); penile implants (nine); and miscellaneous metallic implants and materials (17). All of these materials were evaluated by measuring the deflection forces induced by static magnetic fields at strengths ranging from 0.147 to 4.7 T. This article is a compilation of the results of these studies; it lists all 127 of the materials tested, indicates whether they were found to be deflected by the static magnetic fields, and gives the highest static magnetic field strength at which they were evaluated. Of the metallic implants tested, 66 were nonferromagnetic, and 29 exhibited only minimal deflection relative to their in vivo applications (i.e., the deflection forces were thought to be insufficient to move or dislodge the implant or material in situ). The authors of these studies concluded that patients with these particular metallic implants or materials (95/127, 75%) can be examined safely by MR imaging with scanners having static magnetic field strengthsup to and including those used for the specific evaluations. Patients with other ferromagnetic materials or implants may also undergo MR imaging safely; however, both careful consideration of the factors that influence the deflection of metallic implants and prudent clinical judgment are required before patients who have these objects are examined via MR imaging.
Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90048.