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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 31

of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'

31
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A prospective evaluation of a protocol for magnetic resonance imaging of patients with implanted cardiac devices.
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Nazarian S, Hansford R, Roguin A, Goldsher D, Zviman MM, Lardo AC, Caffo BS, Frick KD, Kraut MA, Kamel IR, Calkins H, Berger RD, Bluemke DA, Halperin HR
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Ann Intern Med. 2011;155(7):415.
 
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is avoided in most patients with implanted cardiac devices because of safety concerns.
OBJECTIVE: To define the safety of a protocol for MRI at the commonly used magnetic strength of 1.5 T in patients with implanted cardiac devices.
DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01130896) SETTING: One center in the United States (94% of examinations) and one in Israel.
PATIENTS: 438 patients with devices (54% with pacemakers and 46% with defibrillators) who underwent 555 MRI studies.
INTERVENTION: Pacing mode was changed to asynchronous for pacemaker-dependent patients and to demand for others. Tachyarrhythmia functions were disabled. Blood pressure, electrocardiography, oximetry, and symptoms were monitored by a nurse with experience in cardiac life support and device programming who had immediate backup from an electrophysiologist.
MEASUREMENTS: Activation or inhibition of pacing, symptoms, and device variables.
RESULTS: In 3 patients (0.7% [95% CI, 0% to 1.5%]), the device reverted to a transient back-up programming mode without long-term effects. Right ventricular (RV) sensing (median change, 0 mV [interquartile range {IQR}, -0.7 to 0 V]) and atrial and right and left ventricular lead impedances (median change, -2Ω[IQR, -13 to 0Ω], -4Ω[IQR, -16 to 0Ω], and -11Ω[IQR, -40 to 0Ω], respectively) were reduced immediately after MRI. At long-term follow-up (61% of patients), decreased RV sensing (median, 0 mV, [IQR, -1.1 to 0.3 mV]), decreased RV lead impedance (median, -3Ω, [IQR, -29 to 15Ω]), increased RV capture threshold (median, 0 V, IQR, [0 to 0.2Ω]), and decreased battery voltage (median, -0.01 V, IQR, -0.04 to 0 V) were noted. The observed changes did not require device revision or reprogramming.
LIMITATIONS: Not all available cardiac devices have been tested. Long-term in-person or telephone follow-up was unavailable in 43 patients (10%), and some data were missing. Those with missing long-term capture threshold data had higher baseline right atrial and right ventricular capture thresholds and were more likely to have undergone thoracic imaging. Defibrillation threshold testing and random assignment to a control group were not performed.
CONCLUSION: With appropriate precautions, MRI can be done safely in patients with selected cardiac devices. Because changes in device variables and programming may occur, electrophysiologic monitoring during MRI is essential.
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Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. snazarian@jhmi.edu
PMID