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Medline ® Abstracts for References 2-5

of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'

2
TI
Progress in n.m.r. zeugmatography imaging.
AU
Lauterbur PC
SO
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980;289(1037):483.
 
Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) zeugmatographic imaging to medical diagnosis and to medical, physiological, and biological research require the development of appropriate imaging instrumentation and ancillary techniques, as well as an understanding of the biological significance of the imaging results. A whole body imaging system, relying primarily upon reconstruction from projections, is under development in the expectation that the reconstruction approach will be the most practical one for many purposes. In addition, injectable magnetic reagents that can selectively change tissue water relaxation times and image contrast are under development so as to increase the specificity and versatility of the measurements. If very high magnetic fields are employed, 31P n.m.r. zeugmatography may be practical at very low resolution for human diagnostic studies and for experiments on perfused organs and small animals. Preliminary images, showing the spatial distributions of different phosphorus metabolites in the compartments of test objects, have been obtained at 146 MHz by reconstruction techniques.
AD
PMID
3
TI
Field focusing n.m.r. (FONAR) and the formation of chemical images in man.
AU
Damadian R
SO
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1980;289(1037):489.
 
The first proposals for n.m.r. scanning in medical diagnosis was made by Damadian (1971a; 1972) and were followed by Lauterbur (1973). Damadian's method of scanning used the principle that the forced precessions of a nuclear magnetization under radio frequency (r.f.) driving field specify the conditions for obtaining spatial resolution of the signal producing domains of a nuclear resonance sample. Sufficient coupling of the nuclear spins to the radiation field to produce a signal detectable by r.f. spectroscopy requires that the stringent Bohr frequency condition, hv = microH0/I, be met. It became possible to construct, with the aid of direct current auxiliary coils, a small volume, called the resonance aperture, inside the applied static field of the magnetic resonance experiment. The correct value of H0 for the applied frequency is restricted to this aperture. The technique (Damadian 1972) was developed to provide a method for non-surgically detecting chemical abnormalities in the diseased organs of patients (Damadian 1971a). The first n.m.r. scans of normal patients and of those with malignant disease are discussed.
AD
PMID
4
TI
True three-dimensional image reconstruction by nuclear magnetic resonance zeugmatography.
AU
Lai CM, Lauterbur PC
SO
Phys Med Biol. 1981;26(5):851.
 
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) zeugmatographic imaging may become a safe and versatile alternative to medical imaging techniques that employ ionising and ultrasonic radiation. Most of the techniques that have been described for obtaining NMR images use single point, line, or plane scans to give a single slice, or reconstruct only a two-dimensional projection, and are relatively inefficient, complex, or difficult to scale up for use on the human body. There are a number of advantage to scanning simultaneously an approximately spherical volume to obtain a true three-dimensional image. A simple two-stage reconstruction method is described for obtaining such images efficiently with isotropic resolution, and examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and usefulness of this mode. The feasibility of high-resolution imaging on large objects is also discussed.
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PMID
5
TI
[The history of tomography].
AU
Seynaeve PC, Broos JI
SO
J Belge Radiol. 1995;78(5):284.
 
It is easily forgotten that not yet a hundred years ago the only way to look into the patients' body was via invasive procedures. Within the year of the discovery of X-rays by Conrad Röntgen the need for three dimensional imaging had been voiced. The driving force behind this development was undoubtedly clinical motivation. Planar X-radiographs were not satisfactory to the clinicians who urged the radiologists to provide them with tomographic images. Between 1910 and 1940, classical tomography has been the product of individuals rather than collective groups. It is only in the mid thirties that scientists found out about each other and started to correspond vigorously. Mayer was the first to suggest in 1914 the idea of tomography. Bocage, Grossman and Vallebona all developed the idea further and built their own equipment. In 1931 Ziedses des Plantes published the most extensive and thorough study on tomography. In the forties and fifties a stagnation is noticed, only further refinements to the existing equipment are carried out. Although Frank and Takahashi published the basic principles of axial tomography in the mid forties, we had to wait for the necessary developments in electronics before Hounsfield was able to develop and commercialize the first axial computer tomography in 1972 (EMI-Scanner). At the time all the big radiology companies rushed into the field and soon, second, third and fourth generation CT scanners became available. Only a few years later a new way of generating images without using ionizing radiation was introduced. Lauterbur and Damadian produced the first low quality images with magnetic resonance, a technique called zeugmatography by its inventors. In 1974 the first images of a living subject were published and initial scepticism was replaced by euphoria. This resulted in the spectacular evolution in Magnetic Resonance that we are now observing. While it is impossible to predict the future, the development of networks, the increase in data acquisition and storage will spread a new light on our specialty. A closer cooperation between radiologists, pathologists and clinicians will undoubtedly be necessary, as well as a partial redefinition of the radiologists task.
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Dienst Radiologie, A.Z. Middelheim, Antwerp, Belgium.
PMID