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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1,6-8

of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'

1
TI
Nuclear magnetic resonance and the brain.
AU
Andrew ER
SO
Brain Topogr. 1992;5(2):129.
 
The first successful demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in bulk matter were reported in 1946 (Bloch, Hansen and Packard 1946; Purcell, Torrey and Pound 1946). Since then NMR has become a widespread technique for investigating matter of all kinds. In the 1970's NMR was applied to living systems, including man, in 2 distinct approaches. One application was in the production of images (Lauterbur 1973), called Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI, and the other in the production of NMR spectra (Moon and Richards 1973; Hoult et al. 1974), called Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS. By appropriate manipulation of the NMR signal an NMR image may be generated. This can be a 2D image of a single slice, or a set of 2D images of parallel slices, or a 3D image. 2D images may be obtained directly in any orientation, axial, coronal, sagittal. The method uses no ionizing radiation and is inherently safe. It is non-invasive, although paramagnetic solutions may be injected intravenously to improve contrast. MRI images observed in normal clinical practice are maps of the NMR signals from water and fat in the tissues; they depend on proton density, but also significantly on the relaxation times T1 and T2. Images can be provided of flow (MR angiography) and diffusion (free, restricted or anisotropic). Images are typically 512 x 512 pixels with spatial resolution of about 0.5 mm. The images can be correlated with anatomical structures and indeed MRI is a primary source of such structures with localization precision of 0.5 mm asin CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
AD
Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.
PMID
6
TI
The Wellcome Foundation lecture, 1981. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in medicine: physical principles.
AU
Andrew ER
SO
Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1985;225(1241):399.
 
In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (n.m.r.) has become a means of providing excellent images of the interior of the human body which are proving useful in medical practice. The development of n.m.r. imaging, much of which was pioneered in Britain, is outlined. Proton image resolution of human anatomy is comparable with X-ray computed tomography images, but without the hazard of ionizing radiation. There is improved soft tissue discrimination and pathological contrast through the basic imaging parameters of the proton density and the relaxation times T1 and T2, whose differences from one tissue to another are exploited by use of appropriate radiofrequency pulse sequences. Images may be obtained directly of transverse, coronal and sagittal sections of the head and body. Single slices or multiple slices may be imaged and imaging may be done in three dimensions. The lecture describes the more important imaging techniques and gives illustrative examples of images obtained. The efficient use of time in n.m.r. imaging is discussed, particularly mentioning the multiecho-multislice procedure and the development of real-time n.m.r. imaging. Magnetic field strengths in current use for proton n.m.r. imaging range from 0.02 to 2 T. At the lower end of the range resistive magnets are used, while for higher fields superconducting magnets are needed. A considerable improvement in image quality is obtained by use of special receiver coils.
AD
PMID
7
TI
Solid state NMR, MRI and Sir Peter Mansfield: (1) from broad lines to narrow and back again; and (2) a highly tenuous link to landmine detection.
AU
Garroway AN
SO
MAGMA. 1999;9(3):103.
 
The contributions of Sir Peter Mansfield to MRI are rooted in solid state NMR. I summarize some of the important contributions of Sir Peter to that field, provide a glimpse of the state of the art in multiple-pulse line-narrowing in the early 1970s, and indicate how the earliest MRI efforts at Nottingham flowed from solid state NMR. These line-narrowing methods, providing control over the Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of nuclear spins, continue to evolve and to find new uses. I indicate how some methods and ideas from solid state NMR of the 1970s are at present applied to the detection of explosives in landmines by nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR).
AD
Chemistry Division, US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5342, USA. garroway@nrl.navy.mil
PMID
8
TI
Synthesis of magnetic gradients for NMR tomography.
AU
Mustarelli P, Rudnicki M, Savini A, Savoldi F, Villa M
SO
Magn Reson Imaging. 1990;8(2):101.
 
A numerical method is applied to calculate an optimal distribution of currents in air which generate the magnetic field gradients required to spatially encode the radiofrequency signal in a NMR tomographic experiment. We compare the performances of the gradient circuits for the whole body air-core electromagnet described by Bangert and Mansfield (J. Phys. E 15; 1982) with the results of our optimization.
AD
Laboratorio NMR della Fondazione Mondino, GNSM-CISM del CNR, Universitàdi Pavia, Bassi, Italy.
PMID