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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 1

of 'Principles of magnetic resonance imaging'

Nuclear magnetic resonance and the brain.
Andrew ER
Brain Topogr. 1992;5(2):129.
The first successful demonstrations of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in bulk matter were reported in 1946 (Bloch, Hansen and Packard 1946; Purcell, Torrey and Pound 1946). Since then NMR has become a widespread technique for investigating matter of all kinds. In the 1970's NMR was applied to living systems, including man, in 2 distinct approaches. One application was in the production of images (Lauterbur 1973), called Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI, and the other in the production of NMR spectra (Moon and Richards 1973; Hoult et al. 1974), called Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy or MRS. By appropriate manipulation of the NMR signal an NMR image may be generated. This can be a 2D image of a single slice, or a set of 2D images of parallel slices, or a 3D image. 2D images may be obtained directly in any orientation, axial, coronal, sagittal. The method uses no ionizing radiation and is inherently safe. It is non-invasive, although paramagnetic solutions may be injected intravenously to improve contrast. MRI images observed in normal clinical practice are maps of the NMR signals from water and fat in the tissues; they depend on proton density, but also significantly on the relaxation times T1 and T2. Images can be provided of flow (MR angiography) and diffusion (free, restricted or anisotropic). Images are typically 512 x 512 pixels with spatial resolution of about 0.5 mm. The images can be correlated with anatomical structures and indeed MRI is a primary source of such structures with localization precision of 0.5 mm asin CT.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville 32611.