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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 91

of 'Principles of cancer immunotherapy'

Anti-GITR antibodies--potential clinical applications for tumor immunotherapy.
Schaer DA, Cohen AD, Wolchok JD
Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2010 Dec;11(12):1378-86.
Since the development of the first vaccines, modern medicine has been consistently aiming to improve the efficacy of immune responses. Traditionally, adjuvants have been used as non-specific immune modulators to enhance recognition and activation against a desired antigen. By providing 'danger' signals to the immune system, adjuvants activate innate immunity, which enhances the development of protective and therapeutic adaptive immune responses. The newest class of immune modulators bypasses the innate response and targets cells of the adaptive response directly. Targeted immunomodulatory therapy is focused primarily on the activation of costimulatory receptors (eg, 4-1BB, OX40 and GITR [glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related gene]) or the blockade of co-inhibitory receptors (eg, CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) on T-cells during activation and/or effector responses. With promising clinical results obtained to date, immunomodulatory therapy is becoming an integral part of immunotherapeutic approaches. The modulation of GITR is listed as one of the top 25 most promising research areas by the NCI, and has demonstrated potential in both antitumor and vaccine settings. This review discusses the role of GITR as a potential target for immunomodulatory therapy, as well as the research involved in understanding the mechanisms of anti-GITR therapy and current progress in translation into the clinic.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medicine, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.