Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: Periprocedural management
- C Michael Gibson, MS, MD
C Michael Gibson, MS, MD
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Joseph P Carrozza, MD
Joseph P Carrozza, MD
- Vice President
- Steward Cardiovascular Network
- Professor of Medicine
- Tufts University School of Medicine
- Roger J Laham, MD
Roger J Laham, MD
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
Coronary reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) improves outcomes in patients with acute ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI), an MI with a new or presumably new left bundle branch block, or a true posterior MI if performed in a timely fashion. Most procedures are now performed with drug-eluting stents, which are associated with a lower rate of restenosis than bare-metal stents. A concern about a somewhat higher rate of very late stent thrombosis relative to bare metal stents exists, but ongoing trials should effectively address this issue. (See "Drug-eluting intracoronary stents: General principles".)
This topic will address some of the technical aspects of PCI, as well as adjunctive medications when used in the periprocedural period. Issues related to the performance of primary PCI will be reviewed here. The determinants of outcome, the clinical trials demonstrating the benefit of primary PCI compared with fibrinolytic therapy, selection of a reperfusion strategy, the possible role of PCI after fibrinolysis, and the role of PCI in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes are discussed separately. (See "Primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: Determinants of outcome" and "Primary percutaneous coronary intervention versus fibrinolysis in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: Clinical trials" and "Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction: Selecting a reperfusion strategy" and "Percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction" and "Coronary angiography and revascularization for unstable angina or non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction".)
PCI AFTER FIBRINOLYTIC THERAPY
Percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolytic therapy may be indicated in patients who remain unstable or in stable patients who have had incomplete reperfusion or as part of a pharmacoinvasive strategy. This issue is discussed elsewhere. (See "Percutaneous coronary intervention after fibrinolysis for acute ST elevation myocardial infarction".)
Radial versus femoral approach — Bleeding complications are common in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and they predict a worse prognosis . Many of these major bleeds occur in relation to the access site for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), particularly when the femoral artery is used. The risk of bleeding is lower with radial artery access. In patients undergoing primary PCI, we prefer the radial to the femoral approach if performed by skilled operators. This issue is discussed in greater detail separately. (See "Periprocedural complications of percutaneous coronary intervention", section on 'Access site bleeding' and "Periprocedural complications of percutaneous coronary intervention", section on 'Radial artery access'.)
Direct stenting — We suggest performing direct stenting of the culprit lesion in most cases. Aspiration thrombectomy may be a useful strategy prior to direct stenting. (See "Suboptimal reperfusion after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction".)
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- PCI AFTER FIBRINOLYTIC THERAPY
- TECHNICAL ISSUES
- Radial versus femoral approach
- Direct stenting
- Selection of stent type
- - First generation DES compared to BMS
- - Second generation DES
- - Drug-eluting balloon plus BMS
- Non-culprit PCI
- Deferred stenting
- Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation
- Ischemic postconditioning
- Intracoronary hyperoxemic reperfusion therapy
- Thrombectomy devices
- ADJUNCTIVE THERAPY
- Antithrombotic therapy
- Beta blockers
- EARLY DISCHARGE IN LOW-RISK PATIENTS
- RECOMMENDATIONS OF OTHERS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS