Prevention of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in immunocompetent patients
- Robyn S Klein, MD, PhD
Robyn S Klein, MD, PhD
- Associate Professor of Medicine
- Washington University School of Medicine
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) may cause gingivostomatitis, which is characterized by vesiculoulcerative lesions of the oral mucosa. Reactivation of HSV-1 occurs in the trigeminal sensory ganglion and may lead to herpes labialis (eg, "cold sores"), which often occurs along the vermillion border of the lip.
The prevention of HSV-1 infections will be reviewed here. The clinical manifestations and treatment of primary and episodic recurrent HSV infections are discussed elsewhere. (See "Clinical manifestations and diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection" and "Treatment of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in immunocompetent patients".)
The treatment and prophylaxis of HSV-1 infections in the immunocompromised patient are discussed elsewhere. (See "Prevention of infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients".)
There is currently no effective vaccine against HSV-1 infection .
In recurrent cutaneous HSV-1 infection, there is a sequential infiltrate of CD4+ and then CD8+ T lymphocytes into lesions. CD4 lymphocytes produce intralesional IFN-gamma and recognize the structural proteins of HSV (ie, glycoproteins D and B) when restimulated in vitro. Research on the immunodominant epitopes of these two glycoproteins may help inform future vaccine trials in humans [2,3].
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- PREVENTIVE VACCINE
- AVAILABLE ANTIVIRAL AGENTS
- PROPHYLAXIS FOR RECURRENT HSV WITH IDENTIFIED TRIGGER
- Sunlight exposure
- - Sunscreen
- - Topical therapy
- - Oral antiviral therapy
- Surgical procedures
- HSV-ASSOCIATED ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME
- PREVENTION OF HSV IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS
- PREVENTION OF SEXUAL TRANSMISSION
- Transmission of HSV-1
- Condom use
- Antiviral therapy
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS