Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2017 UpToDate®

Prevention of falls in children

Anne C Gill, DrPH, MS, RN
Nancy R Kelly, MD, MPH
Section Editor
Jan E Drutz, MD
Deputy Editor
Mary M Torchia, MD


Unintentional falls are a leading cause of nonfatal injury in children younger than 19 years of age in the United States (table 1) [1] and 8 percent of fatal children's injuries worldwide [2]. Fall-related mortality in children has declined since 1987; nonetheless, according to the National Center for Injury and Prevention and Control in 2015, 123 unintentional fall-related deaths occurred in children younger than 20 years: 34 in children younger than five years, 12 in children between 5 and 9 years, 13 in children between 10 and 14 years, and 64 in children between 15 and 19 years [3]. Boys were more than three times as likely as girls to die from fall-related injuries [4].

Emergency department and outpatient surveillance systems indicate that falls are one of the most common injuries requiring medical care and the most common nonfatal injury requiring hospitalization [5-7]. Each year, 2.8 million children are treated in emergency department for fall-related injuries, with children younger than five years of age representing the largest proportion of visits [1,8-10].

In the pediatric age group, children younger than five years of age are at the greatest risk of incurring fall-related injury; they are injured at rates higher than any other age group except individuals older than 75 years, who have the highest fall-related injury rates [1]. Falls are also the most frequent cause of any injury during infancy (an estimated 35.1 per 1000 infant-years) [11]. The combination of curiosity, immature motor skills, and lack of judgment renders preschool children particularly susceptible to falling (eg, as they climb on furniture to obtain toys that are out of reach).

Falls by children occur mainly in the warmer months [12-14]. The location and mechanism of injuries caused by falls vary depending upon the age of the child. More than 80 percent of fall-related injuries in children younger than four years of age occur in the home; among children aged 5 to 14 years, approximately one-half of the injuries occur at home and one-quarter at school. Infants are at risk for falling from furniture or stairs [13,15,16], toddlers are at risk for falling from windows, and older children are at risk for falling from playground equipment.

Children from low-income families are more likely to be injured from falls due to lack of safety equipment (eg, window guards) or deteriorating housing [17-19]. Additional predisposing factors for fall injuries identified in case series include history of previous unintentional injury, neurologic disorder (eg, seizures, developmental delay, hyperactivity), documented parental neglect, and acute stressors (eg, recent move, illness, or job change) [20-23].


Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Apr 2017. | This topic last updated: May 22, 2017.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2017 UpToDate, Inc.
  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leading Causes of Nonfatal Injury Reports, 2000-2015. Available at: https://webapp.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/nfilead.html (Accessed on April 14, 2017).
  2. Alonge O, Hyder AA. Reducing the global burden of childhood unintentional injuries. Arch Dis Child 2014; 99:62.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. WISQARS Leading Causes of Death Reports, 1981-2015. Available at: https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/leadcause.html (Accessed on April 26, 2017).
  4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. WISQARS Fatal Injury Reports, National, Regional, and State, 1981-2015. Available at: https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/mortrate.html (Accessed on April 26, 2017).
  5. Lallier M, Bouchard S, St-Vil D, et al. Falls from heights among children: a retrospective review. J Pediatr Surg 1999; 34:1060.
  6. Hambidge SJ, Davidson AJ, Gonzales R, Steiner JF. Epidemiology of pediatric injury-related primary care office visits in the United States. Pediatrics 2002; 109:559.
  7. Zuckerbraun NS, Powell EC, Sheehan KM, et al. Community childhood injury surveillance: an emergency department-based model. Pediatr Emerg Care 2004; 20:361.
  8. Mathers LJ, Weiss HB. Incidence and characteristics of fall-related emergency department visits. Acad Emerg Med 1998; 5:1064.
  9. Simon TD, Bublitz C, Hambidge SJ. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States. Acad Emerg Med 2004; 11:1042.
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Protect the Ones You Love: Falls. www.cdc.gov/safechild/Falls/index.html (Accessed on March 18, 2012).
  11. Powell EC, Tanz RR. Adjusting our view of injury risk: the burden of nonfatal injuries in infancy. Pediatrics 2002; 110:792.
  12. Mamdani MM, Upshur RE. Fall-related hospitalizations: what's in season? Can J Public Health 2001; 92:113.
  13. Agran PF, Winn D, Anderson C, et al. Rates of pediatric and adolescent injuries by year of age. Pediatrics 2001; 108:E45.
  14. Harborview Injury Prevention & Research Center. Preventing Pediatric Window Falls. Available at: http://depts.washington.edu/hiprc/researchpub/sections/other-research/preventing-pediatric-window-falls/ (Accessed on April 21, 2017).
  15. Mack KA, Gilchrist J, Ballesteros MF. Injuries among infants treated in emergency departments in the United States, 2001-2004. Pediatrics 2008; 121:930.
  16. Zielinski AE, Rochette LM, Smith GA. Stair-related injuries to young children treated in US emergency departments, 1999-2008. Pediatrics 2012; 129:721.
  17. Garrettson LK, Gallagher SS. Falls in children and youth. Pediatr Clin North Am 1985; 32:153.
  18. Mosenthal AC, Livingston DH, Elcavage J, et al. Falls: epidemiology and strategies for prevention. J Trauma 1995; 38:753.
  19. Hong J, Lee B, Ha EH, Park H. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender. Accid Anal Prev 2010; 42:313.
  20. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. American Academy of Pediatrics: Falls from heights: windows, roofs, and balconies. Pediatrics 2001; 107:1188.
  21. Bergner L, Mayer S, Harris D. Falls from heights: a childhood epidemic in an urban area. Am J Public Health 1971; 61:90.
  22. Musemeche CA, Barthel M, Cosentino C, Reynolds M. Pediatric falls from heights. J Trauma 1991; 31:1347.
  23. Sieben RL, Leavitt JD, French JH. Falls as childhood accidents: an increasing urban risk. Pediatrics 1971; 47:886.
  24. Wang MY, Kim KA, Griffith PM, et al. Injuries from falls in the pediatric population: an analysis of 729 cases. J Pediatr Surg 2001; 36:1528.
  25. Demetriades D, Murray J, Brown C, et al. High-level falls: type and severity of injuries and survival outcome according to age. J Trauma 2005; 58:342.
  26. Chadwick DL, Bertocci G, Castillo E, et al. Annual risk of death resulting from short falls among young children: less than 1 in 1 million. Pediatrics 2008; 121:1213.
  27. Stone KE, Lanphear BP, Pomerantz WJ, Khoury J. Childhood injuries and deaths due to falls from windows. J Urban Health 2000; 77:26.
  28. Safe Kids Worldwide. Facts about injuries to children on playgrounds. Available at: http://www.naturalplaygrounds.com/documents/Playground%20Injury%20Statistics.pdf (Accessed on April 21, 2017).
  29. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. CPSC: Parents, caregivers should consider safety before opening windows. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/newsroom/news-releases/2011/cpsc-parents-caregivers-should-consider-safety-before-opening-windows/ (Accessed on April 26, 2017).
  30. Harris VA, Rochette LM, Smith GA. Pediatric injuries attributable to falls from windows in the United States in 1990-2008. Pediatrics 2011; 128:455.
  31. Williams RA. Injuries in infants and small children resulting from witnessed and corroborated free falls. J Trauma 1991; 31:1350.
  32. Chadwick DL, Chin S, Salerno C, et al. Deaths from falls in children: how far is fatal? J Trauma 1991; 31:1353.
  33. Murray JA, Chen D, Velmahos GC, et al. Pediatric falls: is height a predictor of injury and outcome? Am Surg 2000; 66:863.
  34. Goodacre S, Than M, Goyder EC, Joseph AP. Can the distance fallen predict serious injury after a fall from a height? J Trauma 1999; 46:1055.
  35. Reiber GD. Fatal falls in childhood. How far must children fall to sustain fatal head injury? Report of cases and review of the literature. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1993; 14:201.
  36. Helfer RE, Slovis TL, Black M. Injuries resulting when small children fall out of bed. Pediatrics 1977; 60:533.
  37. Barlow B, Niemirska M, Gandhi RP, Leblanc W. Ten years of experience with falls from a height in children. J Pediatr Surg 1983; 18:509.
  38. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fatal injury reports. http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/fatal_injury_reports.html (Accessed on April 21, 2017).
  39. Spiegel CN, Lindaman FC. Children can't fly: a program to prevent childhood morbidity and mortality from window falls. Am J Public Health 1977; 67:1143.
  40. Hussain N, Mewasingh L, Gosalakkal J. Is the heat wave increasing the number of falls from open windows among children? Arch Dis Child 2007; 92:90.
  41. Benoit R, Watts DD, Dwyer K, et al. Windows 99: a source of suburban pediatric trauma. J Trauma 2000; 49:477.
  42. Lehman D, Schonfeld N. Falls from heights: a problem not just in the northeast. Pediatrics 1993; 92:121.
  43. Keogh S, Gray JS, Kirk CJ, et al. Children falling from a height in London. Inj Prev 1996; 2:188.
  44. Adler P, Kyle S. Window falls. Consumer Product Safety Review 2000; 5:5. www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/cpsr_nws17.pdf (Accessed on March 31, 2015).
  45. Spiegel CN, Lindaman FC. Children can't fly: a program to prevent childhood morbidity and mortality from window falls. 1977. Inj Prev 1995; 1:194.
  46. National Safety Council. Window Safety Checklist. Available at: www.nsc.org/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/Fact%20Sheets/Window_Safety_List.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  47. Meller JL, Shermeta DW. Falls in urban children. A problem revisited. Am J Dis Child 1987; 141:1271.
  48. Agran PF, Anderson C, Winn D, et al. Rates of pediatric injuries by 3-month intervals for children 0 to 3 years of age. Pediatrics 2003; 111:e683.
  49. Kendrick D, Watson MC, Mulvaney CA, et al. Preventing childhood falls at home: meta-analysis and meta-regression. Am J Prev Med 2008; 35:370.
  50. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Injuries associated with infant walkers. Pediatrics 2001; 108:790.
  51. Shields BJ, Smith GA. Success in the prevention of infant walker-related injuries: an analysis of national data, 1990-2001. Pediatrics 2006; 117:e452.
  52. Kendrick D, Marsh P. Babywalkers: prevalence of use and relationship with other safety practices. Inj Prev 1998; 4:295.
  53. Use of infant walkers. Board of Trustees, American Medical Association. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145:933.
  54. Smith GA, Bowman MJ, Luria JW, Shields BJ. Babywalker-related injuries continue despite warning labels and public education. Pediatrics 1997; 100:E1.
  55. Millar R, Colville J, Hughes NC. Burns to infants using walking aids. Injury 1975; 7:8.
  56. Johnson CF, Ericson AK, Caniano D. Walker-related burns in infants and toddlers. Pediatr Emerg Care 1990; 6:58.
  57. Rieder MJ, Schwartz C, Newman J. Patterns of walker use and walker injury. Pediatrics 1986; 78:488.
  58. Conners GP, Veenema TG, Kavanagh CA, et al. Still falling: a community-wide infant walker injury prevention initiative. Patient Educ Couns 2002; 46:169.
  59. Baby Walkers (Banned) and Stationary Activity Centres. Available at: www.hc-sc.gc.ca/sr-sr/activ/consprod/baby-bebe-eng.php (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  60. Baby Walkers: A Dangerous Choice. Available at: https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/at-home/Pages/Baby-Walkers-A-Dangerous-Choice.aspx (Accessed on April 21, 2017).
  61. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission; Injuries and Deaths Associated with Nursery Products Among Children Younger than Age Five for 2014. Available at: www.cpsc.gov//Global/Research-and-Statistics/Injury-Statistics/Toys/Nursery-Products-Annual-Report-2014.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  62. Powell EC, Jovtis E, Tanz RR. Incidence and description of high chair-related injuries to children. Ambul Pediatr 2002; 2:276.
  63. Yeh ES, Rochette LM, McKenzie LB, Smith GA. Injuries associated with cribs, playpens, and bassinets among young children in the US, 1990-2008. Pediatrics 2011; 127:479.
  64. Mayr JM, Seebacher U, Schimpl G, Fiala F. Highchair accidents. Acta Paediatr 1999; 88:319.
  65. Schalamon J, Ainoedhofer H, Saxena AK, et al. Falls from highchairs. Eur J Pediatr 2006; 165:732.
  66. Kurinsky RM, Rochette LM, Smith GA. Pediatric injuries associated with high chairs and chairs in the United States, 2003-2010. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2014; 53:372.
  67. Nimityongskul P, Anderson LD. The likelihood of injuries when children fall out of bed. J Pediatr Orthop 1987; 7:184.
  68. Duhaime AC, Alario AJ, Lewander WJ, et al. Head injury in very young children: mechanisms, injury types, and ophthalmologic findings in 100 hospitalized patients younger than 2 years of age. Pediatrics 1992; 90:179.
  69. Lyons TJ, Oates RK. Falling out of bed: a relatively benign occurrence. Pediatrics 1993; 92:125.
  70. Macgregor DM. Injuries associated with falls from beds. Inj Prev 2000; 6:291.
  71. Deemer E, Bertocci G, Pierce MC, et al. Influence of wet surfaces and fall height on pediatric injury risk in feet-first freefalls as predicted using a test dummy. Med Eng Phys 2005; 27:31.
  72. Heh S. Safer bunkbeds. Consumer Product Safety Review 2000; 4:6. Available at: www.cpsc.gov//PageFiles/114879/regsumbunkbed.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  73. Mao SJ, McKenzie LB, Xiang H, Smith GA. Injuries associated with bathtubs and showers among children in the United States. Pediatrics 2009; 124:541.
  74. Mack MG, Hudson S, Thompson D. A descriptive analysis of children's playground injuries in the United States 1990-4. Inj Prev 1997; 3:100.
  75. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Playground Injuries Fact Sheet. Available at: www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Playground-Injuries/playgroundinjuries-factsheet.htm (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  76. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Strangulation Hazard with Playground Cargo Nets. CPSC Document. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/PageFiles/122131/5065.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  77. Phelan KJ, Khoury J, Kalkwarf HJ, Lanphear BP. Trends and patterns of playground injuries in United States children and adolescents. Ambul Pediatr 2001; 1:227.
  78. Gore GC, Magdalinos H, Pless IB. School injuries and preventive policies and programs. Can J Public Health 2004; 95:424.
  79. Vollman D, Witsaman R, Comstock RD, Smith GA. Epidemiology of playground equipment-related injuries to children in the United States, 1996-2005. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009; 48:66.
  80. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. Public Playground Safety Handbook. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/Pagefiles/122149/325.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  81. Sacks JJ, Holt KW, Holmgreen P, et al. Playground hazards in Atlanta child care centers. Am J Public Health 1990; 80:986.
  82. Chalmers DJ, Marshall SW, Langley JD, et al. Height and surfacing as risk factors for injury in falls from playground equipment: a case-control study. Inj Prev 1996; 2:98.
  83. Laforest S, Robitaille Y, Lesage D, Dorval D. Surface characteristics, equipment height, and the occurrence and severity of playground injuries. Inj Prev 2001; 7:35.
  84. Macarthur C, Hu X, Wesson DE, Parkin PC. Risk factors for severe injuries associated with falls from playground equipment. Accid Anal Prev 2000; 32:377.
  85. Mott A, Rolfe K, James R, et al. Safety of surfaces and equipment for children in playgrounds. Lancet 1997; 349:1874.
  86. Fiissel D, Pattison G, Howard A. Severity of playground fractures: play equipment versus standing height falls. Inj Prev 2005; 11:337.
  87. Lewis LM, Naunheim R, Standeven J, Naunheim KS. Quantitation of impact attenuation of different playground surfaces under various environmental conditions using a tri-axial accelerometer. J Trauma 1993; 35:932.
  88. Mack MG, Sacks JJ, Thompson D. Testing the impact attenuation of loose-fill playground surfaces. Inj Prev 2000; 6:141.
  89. Sosin DM, Keller P, Sacks JJ, et al. Surface-specific fall injury rates on Utah school playgrounds. Am J Public Health 1993; 83:733.
  90. Mack MG, Thompson D, Hudson S. An analysis of playground surface injuries. Res Q Exerc Sport 1997; 68:368.
  91. Howard AW, Macarthur C, Rothman L, et al. School playground surfacing and arm fractures in children: a cluster randomized trial comparing sand to wood chip surfaces. PLoS Med 2009; 6:e1000195.
  92. Laforest S, Robitaille Y, Dorval D, et al. Severity of fall injuries on sand or grass in playgrounds. J Epidemiol Community Health 2000; 54:475.
  93. US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Home playground safety checklist. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/pg1.pdf (Accessed on April 27, 2017).
  94. Smith GA, Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. Shopping-cart-related injuries to children. Pediatrics 2006; 118:e540.
  95. Friedman J. Reported shopping cart accidents: data from 1979-1985. US Consumer Product Safety Commission; Washington, DC, 1986.
  96. Smith GA, Dietrich AM, Garcia CT, Shields BJ. Injuries to children related to shopping carts. Pediatrics 1996; 97:161.
  97. Vilke GM, Stepanski BM, Ray LU, et al. 9-1-1 responses for shopping cart and stroller injuries. Pediatr Emerg Care 2004; 20:660.
  98. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Falls from Shopping Carts Cause Serious Head Injuries to Children. Available at: https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/5075.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  99. Smith GA, Dietrich AM, Garcia CT, Shields BJ. Epidemiology of shopping cart-related injuries to children. An analysis of national data for 1990 to 1992. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1995; 149:1207.
  100. Parry ML, Morrison LG, Chalmers DJ, Wright CS. Shopping trolley-related injuries to children in New Zealand, 1988-97. J Paediatr Child Health 2002; 38:51.
  101. Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. Shopping-cart-related injuries to children. Committee on Injury, Violence, and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. Pediatrics 2006; 118:825.
  102. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention. Pediatrics 2000; 106:857.
  103. Christoffel T, Agran P, Winn D, et al. Developing a model law restricting the transporting of passengers in the cargo areas of pickup trucks. J Public Health Policy 2000; 21:61.
  104. US Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Fatality Analysis Reporting System. US Department of Transportation; Washington, DC, 1998.
  105. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Occupants of pickups involved in fatal crashes by state and age group.
  106. Anderson CL, Agran PF, Winn DG, Greenland S. Fatalities to occupants of cargo areas of pickup trucks. Accid Anal Prev 2000; 32:533.
  107. Agran PF, Winn DG, Castillo DN. Pediatric injuries in the back of pickup trucks. JAMA 1990; 264:712.
  108. Agran P, Winn D, Anderson C. Injuries to occupants in cargo areas of pickup trucks. West J Med 1994; 161:479.
  109. Bucklew PA, Osler TM, Eidson JJ, et al. Falls and ejections from pickup trucks. J Trauma 1992; 32:468.
  110. Fallat ME, Svenson JE, Roussell SS, Hardwick VG. Hazards to children riding in the back of pickup trucks. J Ky Med Assoc 1995; 93:515.
  111. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety. Restrictions on riding in cargo areas of pickup trucks. Available at: www.iihs.org/iihs/topics/laws/cargoareas/mapcargoareas?topicName=Safety%20belts (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  112. Katcher ML, Agran P, Laraque D, et al. The hospital record of the injured child and the need for external cause-of-injury codes. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention, 1998-1999. Pediatrics 1999; 103:524.
  113. In-line skating injuries in children and adolescents. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention and Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness. Pediatrics 1998; 101:720.
  114. Forsman L, Eriksson A. Skateboarding injuries of today. Br J Sports Med 2001; 35:325.
  115. Osberg JS, Schneps SE, Di Scala C, Li G. Skateboarding: more dangerous than roller skating or in-line skating. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152:985.
  116. Levine DA, Platt SL, Foltin GL. Scooter injuries in children. Pediatrics 2001; 107:E64.
  117. Cass DT, Ross F. Skateboard injuries. Med J Aust 1990; 153:140, 143.
  118. Fountain JL, Meyers MC. Skateboarding injuries. Sports Med 1996; 22:360.
  119. United States Consumer Product Safety Commission. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) Online. Available at: www.cpsc.gov/library/neiss.html (Accessed on March 31, 2015).
  120. Schieber RA, Branche-Dorsey CM, Ryan GW, et al. Risk factors for injuries from in-line skating and the effectiveness of safety gear. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1630.
  121. Herrmann B, Crawford J. Genital injuries in prepubertal girls from inline skating accidents. Pediatrics 2002; 110:e16.
  122. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention, American Academy of Pediatrics. Skateboard and scooter injuries. Pediatrics 2002; 109:542.
  123. Vioreanu M, Sheehan E, Glynn A, et al. Heelys and street gliders injuries: a new type of pediatric injury. Pediatrics 2007; 119:e1294.
  124. Lenehan B, Callender O, McIntyre A, et al. Heely injuries: a new epidemic warranting a government health warning! Injury 2007; 38:923.
  125. Oh D, Arjandas M, Lim KB, Lee EH. Heelys injuries in children. Singapore Med J 2006; 47:373.
  126. Retsky J, Jaffe D, Christoffel K. Skateboarding injuries in children. A second wave. Am J Dis Child 1991; 145:188.
  127. Schieber RA, Branche-Dorsey CM, Ryan GW. Comparison of in-line skating injuries with rollerskating and skateboarding injuries. JAMA 1994; 271:1856.
  128. Snell Memorial Foundation. 1994 standard for protective headgear for use in non-motorized sports. Snell Memorial Foundation, North Highlands, CA, 1994. Available at: www.smf.org/stds.html (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  129. Kubiak R, Slongo T. Unpowered scooter injuries in children. Acta Paediatr 2003; 92:50.
  130. Gaines BA, Shultz BL, Ford HR. Nonmotorized scooters: a source of significant morbidity in children. J Trauma 2004; 57:111.
  131. Brudvik C. Injuries caused by small wheel devices. Prev Sci 2006; 7:313.
  132. US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Scooter Safety. Available at: www.cpsc.gov//PageFiles/122372/5026.pdf (Accessed on April 22, 2017).
  133. Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness, American Academy of Pediatrics, Briskin S, LaBotz M. Trampoline safety in childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics 2012; 130:774.
  134. Linakis JG, Mello MJ, Machan J, et al. Emergency department visits for pediatric trampoline-related injuries: an update. Acad Emerg Med 2007; 14:539.
  135. Nysted M, Drogset JO. Trampoline injuries. Br J Sports Med 2006; 40:984.
  136. Shankar A, Williams K, Ryan M. Trampoline-related injury in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 2006; 22:644.