Medline ® Abstracts for References 87,89
of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'
A multicentre, double-blind study comparing placebo, ondansetron and ondansetron plus dexamethasone for the control of cisplatin-induced delayed emesis. Ondansetron Delayed Emesis Study Group.
Olver I, Paska W, Depierre A, Seitz JF, Stewart DJ, Goedhals L, McQuade B, McRae J, Wilkinson JR
Ann Oncol. 1996;7(9):945.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral ondansetron, given alone or in combination with dexamethasone in the control of cisplatin-induced delayed emesis.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was an international, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. A total of 640 chemotherapy-naïve patients received ondansetron 8 mg i.v. and dexamethasone 20 mg i.v. for the control of acute emesis prior to cisplatin (>or = 70 mg/m2) on day 1. Patients who were not rescued or withdrawn on day 1 were to be randomised 24 hours after the start of cisplatin administration to one of four groups; group I placebo oral (p.o.), twice daily (bd) on days 2-6 (n = 125); group II ondansetron (8 mg p.o. bd) on days 2/3 followed by placebo (p.o. bd) on days 4-6 (n = 199); group III ondansetron (8 mg p.o. bd) on days 2-6 (n = 214); group IV ondansetron (8 mg p.o. bd) plus dexamethasone (4 mg p.o. bd) on days 2-6 (n = 66).
RESULTS: On day 1, 81% of patients had complete control of acute emesis,with 68% having no emesis and no nausea. Over days 2/3 and over days 2-6, significantly more patients receiving ondansetron plus dexamethasone (group IV) reported no emesis and no nausea (49% and 45%, respectively) compared to ondansetron alone (32% and 27%, respectively) or placebo (group I; 33% and 27%, respectively; P<0.05 for all pairwise comparisons). There were no significant differences in the control of emesis over days 2/3, where 61% of patients had complete emetic control (0 emetic episodes) with ondansetron plus dexamethasone (group IV), 54% with ondansetron (groups II + III) and 49% with placebo (group I). In the distribution of nausea grades, ondansetron plus dexamethasone (group IV) was significantly superior to ondansetron (groups II + III); P = 0.037) and placebo (group I; P = 0.013) over days 2/3. Over days 2-6 there were no significant differences in the control of emesis, however a comparison of the distribution of nausea grades over days 2-6 showed ondansetron plus dexamethasone (group IV) to be significantly superior to ondansetron (group III; P = 0.043) and placebo (group I; P = 0.024). All treatments were well tolerated and no unexpected drug-related adverse events were reported. There were no differences in the overall incidence of adverse events between the active treatment groups or placebo. Constipation and headache, recognised side effects of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, were the most commonly reported adverse events with the incidence of constipation with ondansetron alone (group III) being significantly greater than with over days 2-6 (14% vs. 6%; P = 0.030).
CONCLUSION: In contrast to some previous investigations, in this study, ondansetron alone appears to have a minor role in the control of cisplatin-induced delayed emesis and nausea. In conclusion, the combination of oral ondansetron plus dexamethasone is superior to ondansetron and to placebo.
Royal Adelaide Hospital, Australia.
Controlling delayed vomiting: double-blind, randomized trial comparing placebo, dexamethasone alone, and metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in patients receiving cisplatin.
Kris MG, Gralla RJ, Tyson LB, Clark RA, Cirrincione C, Groshen S
J Clin Oncol. 1989;7(1):108.
The majority of patients receiving cisplatin at a dose of 120 mg/m2 experience delayed nausea and vomiting occurring between 24 and 120 hours after chemotherapy administration. Ninety-one patients who were receiving cisplatin (120 mg/m2) as initial chemotherapy were entered into this double-blind trial. All patients received intravenous (IV) metoclopramide, dexamethasone, and lorazepam for the control of acute emesis during the period from 0 to 24 hours after cisplatin. Patients were then randomized to one of three treatment regimens: placebo; oral dexamethasone, 8 mg twice daily for two days, then 4 mg twice daily for two days; or the combination of oral metoclopramide, 0.5 mg/kg four times daily for four days, plus oral dexamethasone administered as above. Forty-eight percent of individuals who received the two-drug combination of metoclopramide plus dexamethasone experienced delayed vomiting as opposed to 65% who were administered dexamethasone alone and 89% who received placebo (P = .006). Scores assessing the severity of delayed nausea and vomiting were consistently worse in individuals receiving placebo. The incidences of sleepiness, restlessness, heartburn, hiccoughs, loose bowel movements, insomnia, and acute dystonic reactions did not differ significantly among the three regimens and were mild and self-limited. The two-drug combination of oral metoclopramide plus dexamethasone is well tolerated, safe, and more effective than dexamethasone alone or placebo in controlling delayed vomiting following cisplatin.
Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021.