Medline ® Abstracts for References 3,4
of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'
Antiemetics: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update.
Basch E, Prestrud AA, Hesketh PJ, Kris MG, Feyer PC, Somerfield MR, Chesney M, Clark-Snow RA, Flaherty AM, Freundlich B, Morrow G, Rao KV, Schwartz RN, Lyman GH, American Society of Clinical Oncology
J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(31):4189. Epub 2011 Sep 26.
PURPOSE: To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) guideline for antiemetics in oncology.
METHODS: A systematic review of the medical literature was completed to inform this update. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Collaboration Library, and meeting materials from ASCO and the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer were all searched. Primary outcomes of interest were complete response and rates of any vomiting or nausea.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven trials met prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria for this systematic review. Two systematic reviews from the Cochrane Collaboration were identified; one surveyed the pediatric literature. The other compared the relative efficacy of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT(3)) receptor antagonists.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Combined anthracycline and cyclophosphamide regimens were reclassified as highly emetic. Patients who receive this combination or any highly emetic agents should receive a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin 1 (NK(1)) receptor antagonist. A large trial validated the equivalency of fosaprepitant, a single-day intravenous formulation, with aprepitant; either therapy is appropriate. Preferential use of palonosetron is recommended for moderate emetic risk regimens, combined with dexamethasone. For low-risk agents, patients can be offered dexamethasone before the first dose of chemotherapy. Patients undergoing high emetic risk radiation therapy should receive a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist before each fraction and for 24 hours after treatment and may receive a 5-day course of dexamethasone during fractions 1 to 5. The Update Committee noted the importance of continued symptom monitoring throughout therapy. Clinicians underestimate the incidence of nausea, which is not as well controlled as emesis.
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA.
Antiemetics: American Society of Clinical Oncology Focused Guideline Update.
Hesketh PJ, Bohlke K, Lyman GH, Basch E, Chesney M, Clark-Snow RA, Danso MA, Jordan K, Somerfield MR, Kris MG, American Society of Clinical Oncology
J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(4):381. Epub 2015 Nov 2.
PURPOSE: To update a key recommendation of the American Society of Clinical Oncology antiemetic guideline. This update addresses the use of the oral combination of netupitant (a neurokinin 1 [NK1]receptor antagonist) and palonosetron (a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 [5-HT3]receptor antagonist) for the prevention of acute and delayed nausea and vomiting in patients receiving chemotherapy.
METHODS: An update committee conducted a targeted systematic literature review and identified two phase III clinical trials and a randomized phase II dose-ranging study.
RESULTS: In one phase III trial, the oral combination of netupitant and palonosetron was associated with higher complete response rates (no emesis and no rescue medications) compared with palonosetron alone in patients treated with anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide chemotherapy (74% v 67% overall; P = .001). In another phase III trial, the oral combination of netupitant and palonosetron was safe and effective across multiple cycles of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapies. In the phase II dose-ranging study, each dose of netupitant (coadministered with palonosetron 0.50 mg) produced higher complete response rates than palonosetron alone among patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The highest dose of netupitant (ie, 300 mg) was most effective.
RECOMMENDATIONS: All patients who receive highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens (including anthracycline plus cyclophosphamide) should be offered a three-drug combination of an NK1 receptor antagonist, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, and dexamethasone. The oral combination of netupitant and palonosetron plus dexamethasone is an additional treatment option in this setting. The remaining recommendations from the 2011 ASCO guideline are unchanged pending a full update. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/guidelines/antiemetics and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki.
Paul J. Hesketh, Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, MA; Kari Bohlke and Mark R. Somerfield, American Society of Clinical Oncology, Alexandria; Michael A. Danso, Virginia Oncology Associates, Norfolk and Virginia Beach, VA; Gary H. Lyman, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Ethan Basch, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC; Maurice Chesney, patient representative, Saunderstown, RI; Rebecca Anne Clark-Snow, University of Kansas Cancer Center, Westwood, KS; Karin Jordan, University Hospital, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; and Mark G. Kris, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.