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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 22

of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'

22
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A randomized, double-blind comparison of single-dose and divided multiple-dose dolasetron for cisplatin-induced emesis.
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Harman GS, Omura GA, Ryan K, Hainsworth JD, Cramer MB, Hahne WF
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Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 1996;38(4):323.
 
PURPOSE: Intravenous dolasetron has been shown to be an effective antiemetic agent in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. Previous studies have suggested that 1.8 mg/kg is an optimal dose for achieving control of emesis and nausea. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intravenous (IV) dose of dolasetron with an equal divided multiple dose.
METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study, the efficacy and safety of a single 1.8-mg/kg dose of dolasetron given 30 min prior to high-dose cisplatin (>or = 80 mg/m2) chemotherapy was compared with the same total amount of dolasetron administered in three separate doses (0.6 mg/kg each) over a 12-h interval commencing 30 min prior to beginning chemotherapy and ending 11.5 h later. Antiemetic efficacy, safety, and tolerability were compared in 55 patients with various malignancies during the 24 h following the initiation of chemotherapy. The number of emetic episodes was the primary efficacy parameter.
RESULTS: A single IV dose of dolasetron was generally more effectivethan a multiple-dose regimen in all measures of efficacy. There was a larger proportion of complete responders in the single-dose group compared with the multiple-dose group (48% vs 23%), although this difference did not reach statistical significance. Compared with the multiple-dose group, patients who received a single dose of dolasetron had a significantly (P = 0.034) longer median time to the first emetic episode (10.1 h vs>24 h, respectively). Overall, 53% of patients had either a complete response or a major response to dolasetron, and only 40% of the total patient population received escape antiemetic medication in the 24 h after cisplatin administration. Except for headache, adverse events were similar with both regimens and were generally of mild or moderate intensity; no serious adverse events occurred. Neither dolasetron treatment regimen was associated with any clinically important events, trends in laboratory variables, or differences in safety profile.
CONCLUSIONS: single-dose dolasetron was well tolerated and effectively controlled emesis and nausea in patients who received highly emetogenic, high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy. The greater antiemetic efficacy of a single prophylactic dose of dolasetron offers both convenience and potential cost savings, compared with a multiple-dose schedule of administration.
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University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City 52242, USA.
PMID