Medline ® Abstracts for References 18,24,25
of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'
Consensus proposal for 5HT3 antagonists in the prevention of acute emesis related to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Dose, schedule, and route of administration.
Gandara DR, Roila F, Warr D, Edelman MJ, Perez EA, Gralla RJ
Support Care Cancer. 1998;6(3):237.
Selective antagonists to the Type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3) in combination with corticosteroids are now considered the standard of care for the prevention of emesis from moderately to highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Here we address issues of optimal dose, schedule and route of administration of four currently available selectable 5HT3 antagonists. This paper utilizes an evidence based medicine approach to the literature regarding this class of drugs, emphasizing the results large, randomized, controlled trials to make formal recommendations concerning optimal use of this important new class of anti-emetic agents. We conclude that for each drug there is a plateau in therapeutic efficacy at a definable dose level above which further dose escalation does not improve outcome. Furthermore, a single dose is as effective as multiple doses or continuous infusion, and finally, emerging data demonstrate that the oral route is equally efficacious as the intravenous route of administration, even with highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
U.C. Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA.
Comparison of single-dose oral granisetron versus intravenous ondansetron in the prevention of nausea and vomiting induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized parallel study.
Perez EA, Hesketh P, Sandbach J, Reeves J, Chawla S, Markman M, Hainsworth J, Bushnell W, Friedman C
J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(2):754.
PURPOSE: The antiemetic effectiveness and safety of single-dose oral granisetron were compared with intravenous (I.V.) ondansetron in chemotherapy-naive patients who received moderately emetogenic chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this double-blind, parallel-group study, patients naive to emetogenic chemotherapy (N = 1,085) who were scheduled to receive cyclophosphamide- (500 to 1,200 mg/m2) or carboplatin (>or = 300 mg/m2) based chemotherapy, were randomized to receive either oral granisetron (n = 542) or I.V. ondansetron (n = 543). Efficacy assessments included the proportion of patients in each treatment group with total control over the 24 and 48 hours following chemotherapy initiation, as well as incidence and severity of nausea and emesis and use of antiemetic rescue medication. Prophylactic corticosteroids were allowed. Safety assessment was based on patients' reports of adverse experiences.
RESULTS: Approximately 80% of patients received prophylactic corticosteroids. Single-dose oral granisetron (2 mg) and I.V. ondansetron (32 mg) resulted in equivalent levels of total emetic control during the first 48 hours after chemotherapy. The proportion of nausea- and emesis-free patients at 24 and 48 hours were also approximately equivalent. The most commonly reported adverse experiences were headache, asthenia, and constipation. More patients who received ondonsetron than granisetron reported dizziness (9.6% v 5.4%, respectively; P = .011) and abnormal vision (4.2% v 0.6%, respectively; P<.001).
CONCLUSION: A single oral dose of granisetron (2 mg) resulted in equivalent levels of antiemetic protection as I.V. ondansetron (32 mg). Both agents were well tolerated, although more dizziness and abnormal vision were reported with ondansetron. Because the two antiemetic regimens exhibited equivalent efficacies, additional factors such as convenience and cost of therapy should be considered.
Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA. email@example.com
Single-dose oral granisetron has equivalent antiemetic efficacy to intravenous ondansetron for highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Gralla RJ, Navari RM, Hesketh PJ, Popovic W, Strupp J, Noy J, Einhorn L, Ettinger D, Bushnell W, Friedman C
J Clin Oncol. 1998;16(4):1568.
PURPOSE: To compare the antiemetic efficacy of a single dose of an oral antiemetic (granisetron 2 mg) with a single dose of an intravenous (i.v.) antiemetic (ondansetron 32 mg) given before cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients (N = 1,054) scheduled to receive cisplatin (>or = 60 mg/m2)-based chemotherapy were randomized to receive either 2 mg of oral granisetron tablets 1 hour before chemotherapy (n = 534) or i.v. ondansetron (32 mg) 30 minutes before chemotherapy (n = 520). The primary efficacy end point was total control (no emesis, no nausea, and no use of antiemetic rescue medication) over the initial 24 hours after the start of chemotherapy. Dexamethasone or methylprednisolone were permitted, but not required, as concomitant prophylactic antiemetics.
RESULTS: Total control was equivalent 24 hours after cisplatin chemotherapy for single-dose oral granisetron (54.7%) and i.v. ondansetron (58.3%) (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.6 to 2.4). Similarproportions of patients remained nausea-free in the granisetron group (55.4%) and the ondansetron group (59%) (95% CI, -9.6 to 2.4). The rate of complete control of emesis was 61.2% in the granisetron group and 67.1% in the ondansetron group (95% CI, -11.7 to -0.1). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated, with similar patterns of adverse reactions, generally of a mild degree. The most common side effects included constipation (14%), headache (15%), and diarrhea (10%).
CONCLUSION: Oral granisetron, administered as a single 2-mg dose, provided equivalent total antiemetic control when compared with i.v. ondansetron (32 mg) in patients who received highly emetogenic, cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Ochsner Cancer Institute, New Orleans, LA 70121, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org