Medline ® Abstracts for References 138-140
of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'
Effective cross-over to granisetron after failure to ondansetron, a randomized double blind study in patients failing ondansetron plus dexamethasone during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
de Wit R, de Boer AC, vd Linden GH, Stoter G, Sparreboom A, Verweij J
Br J Cancer. 2001;85(8):1099.
In view of the similarity in chemical structure of the available 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists it is assumed, whilst these agents all act at the same receptor, that failure to one agent would predict subsequent failure to all 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists. We conducted a randomized double blind trial of granisetron 3 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg versus continued treatment with ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg in patients with protection failure on ondansetron 8 mg plus dexamethasone 10 mg during the first 24 hours following highly emetogenic chemotherapy. Of 40 eligible patients, 21 received ondansetron + dexamethasone and 19 received granisetron + dexamethasone. We found a significant benefit from crossing-over to granisetron after failure on ondansetron. Of the 19 patients who crossed over to granisetron, 9 patients obtained complete protection, whereas this was observed in 1 of the 21 patients continuing ondansetron, P = 0.005. These results indicate that there is no complete cross-resistance between 5HT(3)-receptor antagonists, and that patients who have acute protection failure on one 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist should be offered cross-over to another 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist.
Rotterdam Cancer Institute and University Hospital Rotterdam, IJsselland Hospital Rotterdam, Albert Schweitzer Hospital Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
[Improvement in the control of chemotherapy induced emesis with ondansetron, methylprednisolone and lorazepam combination in patients treated by a moderate emetic treatment and uncontrolled by a previous antiemetic combination].
Harousseau JL, Zittoun R, Bonneterre J, Hedouin M, Ouvry J
Bull Cancer. 2000;87(6):491.
The objective of this double blind parallel-group multicentre study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the combination ondansetron + methylprednisolone + lorazepam (O + M + L) in the prevention of emesis induced by chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide or adriamycin . This tritherapy was compared to a bitherapy O + M. Patients included were suffering from severe haemopathy or breast cancer. They had to have an incomplete response to a previous antiemetic association of 5HT3 serotoninergic receptor antagonist and corticoid. One hundred and thirty-five adult patients were included and were randomised to receive : O + M + L or O + M for 3 days. The emesis control during the 3 days of treatment (no emetic episode during the complete course) was significantly superior in the group O + M + L than in the group O + M (69% versus 46%, p = 0. 042); nausea control on the worst day of the cure was significantly superior in the group O + M + L than in the group O + M (p = 0.04) with 76% of patients in the group O + M + L having complete or major nausea control compared to 51% in the group O + M. The stability of quality of life during the days following chemotherapy measured by one questionnaire, including two scales, one cancer specific (FLIC) and one emesis specific (FLIE), appeared significantly better ingroup O + M + L (p = 0.04 and p = 0.019). Safety of both antiemetic regimens was good and similar between the two treatment groups. This trial shows that the adjunction of lorazepam to ondansetron and corticoid in combination increases the antiemetic control for patients with an incomplete response to a previous regimen containing a 5HT3 serotoninergic receptor antagonist and a corticosteroid in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis.
Service d'hématologie clinique, CHU, Nantes Cedex.
Antiemetic efficacy of combination therapy with granisetron plus prednisolone plus the dopamine D2 antagonist metopimazine during multiple cycles of moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in patients refractory to previous antiemetic therapy.
Sigsgaard T, Herrstedt J, Christensen P, Andersen O, Dombernowsky P
Support Care Cancer. 2000;8(3):233.
Effective antiemetic treatment of patients who have previously experienced chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiemetic efficacy of a single intravenous dose of granisetron plus a 3-day oral treatment with prednisolone 25 mg once a day plus metopimazine 30 mg four times a day in patients refractory to previous antiemetic treatment with granisetron or with prednisolone plus metopimazine. The study population was made up of 25 consecutive women with stage I or II breast cancer, who were treated with multiple cycles of adjuvant cyclophosphamide, fluorouracil plus methotrexate or cyclophosphamide, epirubicin plus fluorouracil given i.v. every 3 weeks. Patients received the three-drug combination of antiemetics during a total of 113 cycles of chemotherapy. No emetic episodes were reported in 88.9% cycles on day 1, in 94.7% cycles on days 2 through 5 and in 85.8% cycles on days 1 through 5 after chemotherapy. No nausea was reported in 43.4% cycles on day 1, in 49.6% cycles on days 2 through 5 and in 34.5% cycles on days 1 through 5. Nineteen patients (76.0%) completed the scheduled nine cycles of chemotherapy, 1 being withdrawn because of>or =5 emetic episodes and 5, becausethey were not satisfied with the antiemetic treatment. The treatment was well tolerated. In conclusion, granisetron plus prednisolone plus metopimazine is a highly effective antiemetic treatment in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy refractory to antiemetic therapy with granisetron or prednisolone plus metopimazine.
Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark. email@example.com