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Medline ® Abstracts for References 11-14

of 'Prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults'

11
TI
Oral granisetron alone and in combination with dexamethasone: a double-blind randomized comparison against high-dose metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in prevention of cisplatin-induced emesis. The Granisetron Study Group.
AU
Heron JF, Goedhals L, Jordaan JP, Cunningham J, Cedar E
SO
Ann Oncol. 1994;5(7):579.
 
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three anti-emetic treatment regimens were compared in 357 patients receiving cisplatin therapy (mean dose 81 mg/m2) in this double-blind randomized study. Regimens studied were i) granisetron 1 mg bd orally for 7 days (granisetron alone); ii) gran 1 mg bd orally for 7 days plus prophylactic dexamethasone (12 mg i.v.) on the first day only (gran/dex); iii) metoclopramide (3 mg/kg i.v. loading dose; 4 mg/kg i.v. infusion) plus dex (12 mg i.v.) on the first day followed by met 10 mg orally tds for a further 6 days (met/dex).
RESULTS: At 24 hours, gran/dex was significantly superior to met/dex in terms of total anti-emetic control, defined as no nausea, no vomiting, no rescue anti-emetic therapy, not withdrawn (54.7% gran/dex vs. 37.2% met/dex; P<0.01). There was also a significant delay in time to onset of nausea (P<0.01) and vomiting (P<0.01) following gran/dex compared with met/dex. Oral granisetron alone was as effective as met/dex in control of acute emesis in all parameters examined. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the control of delayed nausea and vomiting. The most common adverse experiences in both granisetron groups were headache and constipation, both characteristic of 5-HT3 antagonists. Agitation, somnolence, diarrhoea and decreased appetite were reported more frequently by the met/dex group.
CONCLUSIONS: Oral granisetron as a single agent is as effective as high doses of i.v. met/dex in preventing cisplatin-induced emesis. Oral granisetron in combination with a corticosteroid provides superior anti-emetic control to the met/dex regimen in patients undergoing highly emetogenic chemotherapy.
AD
Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France.
PMID
12
TI
Efficacy and safety of granisetron compared with high-dose metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in patients receiving high-dose cisplatin in a single-blind study. The Granisetron Study Group.
AU
Chevallier B
SO
Eur J Cancer. 1990;26 Suppl 1:S33.
 
The efficacy and safety of granisetron, a novel anti-emetic, were compared with those of high-dose metoclopramide plus dexamethasone in 234 patients undergoing treatment with high-dose cisplatin (greater than or equal to 49 mg/m2). In this single-blind study, granisetron (40 micrograms/kg; n = 114) was administered as a 5 min infusion, with two additional 40 micrograms/kg doses allowed to control any subsequent nausea and vomiting. In 120 patients, dexamethasone 12 mg was administered intravenously over 30 min, followed by a loading dose of 3 mg/kg metoclopramide. Metoclopramide maintenance dose of 4 mg/kg was then administered over 8 h. The single 5 min infusion of granisetron was at least as effective an anti-emetic as the standard regimen. Approximately 70% of patients in each treatment group were free from vomiting and had no, or only mild nausea in the first 24 h. Granisetron administration was more convenient than the combination dosing schedule for the comparator which was up to 9 h. Only one adverse event, headache, occurred in more than five patients in the granisetron group. However, 13 extrapyramidal reactions (five of them serious) were reported in the metoclopramide plus dexamethasone group.
AD
Service de Médecine Interne et Chimiothérapie, Centre Henri Becquerel, Rouen, France.
PMID
13
TI
A randomised, double-blind comparison of granisetron with high-dose metoclopramide, dexamethasone and diphenhydramine for cisplatin-induced emesis. An NCI Canada Clinical Trials Group Phase III Trial.
AU
Warr D, Wilan A, Venner P, Pater J, Kaizer L, Laberge F, Latreille J, Stewart D, O'Connell G, Osoba D
SO
Eur J Cancer. 1992;29A(1):33.
 
151 patients (149 evaluable) receiving their first course of chemotherapy containing cisplatin in a dose of at least 50 mg/m2 were randomised to receive either a single dose of intravenous granisetron 80 micrograms/kg or intravenous metoclopramide 2 mg/kg every 2 h for five doses plus a single dose of dexamethasone 10 mg and diphenhydramine. After 24 h, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to nausea or vomiting: in the granisetron group 46% of patients had no emesis, versus 44% of the standard group. Granisetron is an antiemetic agent with efficacy similar to that of high-dose metoclopramide plus dexamethasone.
AD
Department of Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
PMID
14
TI
A double-blind, multicentre comparison of intravenous dolasetron mesilate and metoclopramide in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in cancer patients receiving high-dose cisplatin chemotherapy.
AU
Chevallier B, Cappelaere P, Splinter T, Fabbro M, Wendling JL, Cals L, Catimel G, Giovannini M, Khayat D, Bastit P, Claverie N
SO
Support Care Cancer. 1997;5(1):22.
 
The potent serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists are new highly selective agents for the prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting that have been shown to be comparable to or more effective than traditional metoclopramide regimens. This study was designed to compare the antiemetic efficacy of dolasetron and metoclopramide in chemotherapy-naive and non-naive cancer patients receiving high-dose cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. This multicentre, double-blind, randomized trial compared the efficacy and safety of single i.v. doses of dolasetron mesilate salt (1.2 or 1.8 mg/kg) and metoclopramide (7 mg/kg) in 226 patients for the prevention of acute emesis and nausea associated with the administration of high-dose (>or = 80 mg/m2) cisplatin. Efficacy and safety were evaluated for 24 h. Complete responses were achieved by 57%, 48%, and 35% of patients given dolasetron mesilate 1.8 mg/kg (P = 0.0009 vs metoclopramide), dolasetron mesilate 1.2 mg/kg (P = 0.0058 vs metoclopramide), and metoclopramide, respectively. Overall, dolasetron was significantly more effective than metoclopramide for time to first emetic episode, nausea, patient satisfaction, and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Males, chemotherapy-naivepatients, and alcoholics had higher response rates. Dolasetron was well tolerated, with mild-to-moderate headache most commonly reported. Twelve percent of patients receiving metoclopramide reported extrapyramidal symptoms compared with 0% of patients receiving dolasetron. In conclusion, dolasetron mesilate was effective for the prevention of CINV with high-dose cisplatin. Single i.v. doses of dolasetron mesilate were more effective than 7 mg/kg metoclopramide in preventing nausea and vomiting induced by highly emetogenic cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. In addition, 1.8 mg/kg dolasetron mesilate consistently produced the highest response rates and appears to be the most effective dose for further clinical development.
AD
Service d'Oncologie Médicale, Centre H. Becquerel, Rouen, France.
PMID