Medline ® Abstract for Reference 42
of 'Prevention and management of side effects in patients receiving opioids for chronic pain'
Alvimopan: an oral, peripherally acting, mu-opioid receptor antagonist for the treatment of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction--a 21-day treatment-randomized clinical trial.
Paulson DM, Kennedy DT, Donovick RA, Carpenter RL, Cherubini M, Techner L, Du W, Ma Y, Schmidt WK, Wallin B, Jackson D
J Pain. 2005;6(3):184.
Alvimopan has been shown to reverse the inhibitory effect of opioids on gastrointestinal transit without affecting analgesia. We evaluated oral alvimopan, 0.5 or 1 mg, versus placebo, once daily for 21 days, in 168 patients with opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OBD) who were receiving chronic opioid therapy (minimum, 1 month) for nonmalignant pain (n = 148) or opioid dependence (n = 20). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients having at least one bowel movement (BM) within 8 hours of study drug on each day during the 21-day treatment period. Averaged over the 21-day treatment period, 54%, 43%, and 29% of patients had a BM within 8 hours after alvimopan 1 mg, 0.5 mg, or placebo, respectively (P<.001). Secondary outcomes of median times to first BM were 3, 7, and 21 hours after initial doses of 1 mg, 0.5 mg, and placebo, respectively (P<.001; 1 mg vs placebo). Weekly BMs and overall patient satisfaction were increased after the 1-mg dose (P<.001 at weeks 1 and 2 vs placebo, and P = .046, respectively). Treatment-emergent adverse events were primarily bowel-related, occurred during the first week of treatment, and were of mild to moderate severity. Alvimopan was generally well tolerated and did not antagonize opioid analgesia. Patients treated with chronic opioid therapy often experience opioid-induced bowel dysfunction as a result of undesirable effects on peripheral opioid receptors located in the gastrointestinal tract. Alvimopan, a novel peripheral opioid mu-receptor antagonist, has demonstrated significant efficacy for the management of opioid-induced bowel dysfunction without compromise of centrally mediated opioid-induced analgesia.
VA Medical Center, Richmond, USA. Daniel.Paulson@sanofi-aventis.com