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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 17

of 'Prevention and management of side effects in patients receiving opioids for chronic pain'

Consensus Recommendations on Initiating Prescription Therapies for Opioid-Induced Constipation.
Argoff CE, Brennan MJ, Camilleri M, Davies A, Fudin J, Galluzzi KE, Gudin J, Lembo A, Stanos SP, Webster LR
Pain Med. 2015 Dec;16(12):2324-37. Epub 2015 Nov 19.
OBJECTIVE: Aims of this consensus panel were to determine (1) an optimal symptom-based method for assessing opioid-induced constipation in clinical practice and (2) a threshold of symptom severity to prompt consideration of prescription therapy.
METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel of 10 experts with extensive knowledge/experience with opioid-associated adverse events convened to discuss the literature on assessment methods used for opioid-induced constipation and reach consensus on each objective using the nominal group technique.
RESULTS: Five validated assessment tools were evaluated: the Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM), Patient Assessment of Constipation-Quality of Life (PAC-QOL), Stool Symptom Screener (SSS), Bowel Function Index (BFI), and Bowel Function Diary (BF-Diary). The 3-item BFI and 4-item SSS, both clinician administered, are the shortest tools. In published trials, the BFI and 12-item PAC-SYM are most commonly used. The 11-item BF-Diary is highly relevant in opioid-induced constipationand was developed and validated in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines. However, the panel believes that the complex scoring for this tool and the SSS, PAC-SYM, and 28-item PAC-QOL may be unfeasible for clinical practice. The BFI is psychometrically validated and responsive to changes in symptom severity; scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating greater severity and scores>28.8 points indicating constipation.
CONCLUSIONS: The BFI is a simple assessment tool with a validated threshold of clinically significant constipation. Prescription treatments for opioid-induced constipation should be considered for patients who have a BFI score of≥30 points and an inadequate response to first-line interventions.
The American Academy of Pain Medicine Foundation and Comprehensive Pain Center, Albany Medical Center, Albany, New York, USA.