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Pregnancy in women with antiphospholipid syndrome

Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
Michael D Lockshin, MD, MACR
Section Editor
Susan M Ramin, MD
Deputy Editor
Vanessa A Barss, MD, FACOG


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in women refers to a syndrome characterized by both:

Arterial or venous thrombosis or specific pregnancy complications, and

Laboratory evidence of antibodies to proteins bound to anionic phospholipids

The three main types of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) of concern to obstetricians are lupus anticoagulants (LA), anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) [1], and anti-beta-2-glycoprotein-1 antibodies [2]. Other antibody specificities have been proposed, but have not proven to be predictive in clinical studies.

This topic will discuss pregnancy complications and management in women with APS. General issues related to APS in the nonpregnant population are reviewed separately:


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: Aug 25, 2016.
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