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Medline ® Abstracts for References 1-5

of 'Predictors of coronary artery reocclusion following fibrinolysis (thrombolysis)'

1
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Consequences of reocclusion after successful reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction. TAMI Study Group.
AU
Ohman EM, Califf RM, Topol EJ, Candela R, Abbottsmith C, Ellis S, Sigmon KN, Kereiakes D, George B, Stack R
SO
Circulation. 1990;82(3):781.
 
To determine the clinical consequences of reocclusion of an infarct-related artery after reperfusion therapy, we evaluated 810 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients were admitted into four sequential studies with similar entry criteria in which patency of the infarct-related artery was assessed by coronary arteriography 90 minutes after onset of thrombolytic therapy. Successful reperfusion was established acutely in 733 patients. Thrombolytic therapy included tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) in 517, urokinase in 87, and a combination of t-PA and urokinase in 129 patients. All patients received aspirin, intravenous heparin and nitroglycerin, and diltiazem during the recovery phase. A repeat coronary arteriogram was performed in 88% of patients at a median of 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Reocclusion of the infarct-related artery occurred in 91 patients (12.4%), and 58% of these were symptomatic. Angiographic characteristics at 90 minutes after thrombolytic therapy that were associated with reocclusion compared with sustained coronary artery patency were right coronary infarct-related artery (65% versus 44%, respectively) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow 0 or 1 (21% versus 10%, respectively) before further intervention. Median (interquartile value) degree of stenosis in the infarct-related artery at90 minutes was similar between groups: 99% for reoccluded (value, 90/100%) compared with 95% for patent (value, 80/99%). Patients with reocclusion had similar left ventricular ejection fractions compared with patients with sustained patency at follow-up. However, patients with reocclusion at follow-up had worse infarct-zone function at -2.7 (value, -3.2/-1.8) versus -2.4 (SD/chord) (value, -3.1/-1.3) (p = 0.016). The recovery of both global and infarct-zone function was impaired by reocclusion of the infarct-related artery compared with maintained patency; median delta ejection fraction was -2 compared with 1 (p = 0.006) and median delta infarct-zone wall motion was -0.10 compared with 0.34 SD/chord (p = 0.011), respectively. In addition, patients with reocclusion had more complicated hospital courses and higher in-hospital mortality rates (11.0% versus 4.5%, respectively; p = 0.01). We conclude that reocclusion of the infarct-related artery after successful reperfusion is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality rates. Reocclusion is also detrimental to the functional recovery of both global and infarct-zone regional left ventricular function. Thus, new strategies in the postinfarction period need to be developed to prevent reocclusion of the infarct-related artery.
AD
Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710.
PMID
2
TI
Recurrent ischemia without warning. Analysis of risk factors for in-hospital ischemic events following successful thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator.
AU
Ellis SG, Topol EJ, George BS, Kereiakes DJ, Debowey D, Sigmon KN, Pickel A, Lee KL, Califf RM
SO
Circulation. 1989;80(5):1159.
 
Ischemic events after successful thrombolysis have been reported to occur in 18-32% of patients treated for acute myocardial infarction with thrombolytic therapy, and previous studies in which patients received streptokinase suggest that risk of early recurrent ischemia is closely related to the presence of a high-grade residual stenosis. If these events are predictable after intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thrombolytic therapy, then further intervention after its use could be targeted at selected patients. One-hundred ninety-two patients from the Thrombolysis and Angioplasty in Myocardial Infarction (TAMI) I and TAMI III trials had successful rt-PA-mediated thrombolysis without immediate coronary angioplasty (PTCA). One-hundred seventy-four of these patients (92%) had prehospital discharge angiography. The mean age was 56 +/- 11 years; 81% were men; the infarct-related artery was the left anterior descending in 76 (39.8%), the left circumflex in 24 (12.6%), and the right coronary artery in 91 (47.6%). Thrombolysis with rt-PA resulted in a residual 73 +/- 13% diameter and 0.95 +/- 0.51 mm stenosis by quantitative coronary arteriography, and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 2 in 59.2% and 3 in 40.8% of stenoses as assessed on angiograms obtained 90 minutes after the initiation of rt-PA therapy. Recurrent ischemic events (ischemia requiring emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or urgent bypass surgery, reocclusion of the infarct-related artery, or cardiac death) occurred in 41 patients (21.3%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
AD
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor 48109.
PMID
3
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The effects of tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase, or both on coronary-artery patency, ventricular function, and survival after acute myocardial infarction.
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GUSTO Angiographic Investigators
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N Engl J Med. 1993;329(22):1615.
 
BACKGROUND: Although it is known that thrombolytic therapy improves survival after acute myocardial infarction, it has been debated whether the speed with which coronary-artery patency is restored after the initiation of therapy further affects outcome.
METHODS: To study this question, we randomly assigned 2431 patients to one of four treatment strategies for reperfusion: streptokinase with subcutaneous heparin; streptokinase with intravenous heparin; accelerated-dose tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with intravenous heparin; or a combination of both activators plus intravenous heparin. Patients were also randomly assigned to cardiac angiography at one of four times after the initiation of thrombolytic therapy: 90 minutes, 180 minutes, 24 hours, or 5 to 7 days. The group that underwent angiography at 90 minutes underwent it again after 5 to 7 days.
RESULTS: The rate of patency of the infarct-related artery at 90 minutes was highest in the group given accelerated-dose t-PA and heparin (81 percent), as compared with the group given streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin (54 percent, P<0.001), the group given streptokinase and intravenous heparin (60 percent, P<0.001), and the group given combination therapy (73 percent, P = 0.032). Flow through the infarct-related artery at 90 minutes was normal in 54 percent of the group given t-PA and heparin but in less than 40 percent in the three other groups (P<0.001). By 180 minutes, the patency rates were the same in the four treatment groups. Reocclusion was infrequent and was similar in all four groups (range, 4.9 to 6.4 percent). Measures of left ventricular function paralleled the rate of patency at 90 minutes; ventricular function was best in the group given t-PA with heparin and in patients with normal flow through the infarct-related artery irrespective of treatment group. Mortality at 30 days was lowest (4.4 percent) among patients with normal coronary flow at 90 minutes and highest (8.9 percent) among patients with no flow (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the hypothesis that more rapid and complete restoration of coronary flow through the infarct-related artery results in improved ventricular performance and lower mortality among patients with myocardial infarction. This would appear to be the mechanism by which accelerated t-PA therapy produced the most favorable outcome in the GUSTO trial.
AD
PMID
4
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Aspirin versus coumadin in the prevention of reocclusion and recurrent ischemia after successful thrombolysis: a prospective placebo-controlled angiographic study. Results of the APRICOT Study.
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Meijer A, Verheugt FW, Werter CJ, Lie KI, van der Pol JM, van Eenige MJ
SO
Circulation. 1993;87(5):1524.
 
BACKGROUND: Successful coronary thrombolysis involves a risk for reocclusion that cannot be prevented by invasive strategies. Therefore, we studied the effects of three antithrombotic regimens on the angiographic and clinical courses after successful thrombolysis.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy followed by intravenous heparin were eligible when a patent infarct-related artery was demonstrated at angiography<48 hours. Three hundred patients were randomized to either 325 mg aspirin daily or placebo with discontinuation of heparin or to Coumadin with continuation of heparin until oral anticoagulation was established (international normalized ratio, 2.8-4.0). After 3 months, in which conservative treatment was intended, vessel patency and ventricular function were reassessed in 248 patients. Reocclusion rates were not significantly different: 25% (23 of 93) with aspirin, 30% (24 of 81) with Coumadin, and 32% (24 of 74) with placebo. Reinfarction was seen in 3% of patients on aspirin, in 8% on Coumadin, and in 11% on placebo (aspirin versus placebo, p<0.025; other comparison, p = NS). Revascularization rate was 6% with aspirin, 13% with Coumadin, and 16%with placebo (aspirin versus placebo, p<0.05; other comparisons, p = NS). Mortality was 2% and did not differ between groups. An event-free clinical course was seen in 93% with aspirin, in 82% with Coumadin, and in 76% with placebo (aspirin versus placebo, p<0.001; aspirin versus Coumadin, p<0.05). An event-free course without reocclusion was observed in 73% with aspirin, in 63% with Coumadin, and in 59% with placebo (p = NS). An increase of left ventricular ejection fraction was only found in the aspirin group (4.6%, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: At 3 months after successful thrombolysis, reocclusion occurred in about 30% of patients, regardless of the use of antithrombotics. Compared with placebo, aspirin significantly reduces reinfarction rate and revascularization rate, improves event-free survival, and better preserves left ventricular function. The efficacy of Coumadin on these end points appears less than that of aspirin. The still-high reocclusion rate emphasizes the need for better antithrombotic therapy in these patients.
AD
Free University Hospital, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
PMID
5
TI
Early and long-term clinical outcomes associated with reinfarction following fibrinolytic administration in the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trials.
AU
Gibson CM, Karha J, Murphy SA, James D, Morrow DA, Cannon CP, Giugliano RP, Antman EM, Braunwald E, TIMI Study Group
SO
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(1):7.
 
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that early recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) following fibrinolytic administration would be assessed with higher mortality at both 30 days and 2 years.
BACKGROUND: Although early recurrent MI after fibrinolytic therapy has been associated with increased early mortality in the acute MI setting, its relation to long-term mortality has not been fully explored.
METHODS: Mortality data were ascertained in 20,101 patients enrolled in the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 4, 9, and 10B and Intravenous NPA for the Treatment of Infarcting Myocardium Early (InTIME-II) acute MI trials.
RESULTS: The frequency of symptomatic recurrent MI during the index hospitalization was 4.2% (836/20,101). Recurrent MI during the index hospital period was associated with increased 30-day mortality (16.4% [137/836]vs. 6.2% [1,188/19,260], p<0.001). Likewise, recurrent MI was associated with a sustained increase in mortality up to two years, even after adjustments were made for covariates known to be associated with mortality and recurrent MI (hazard ratio 2.11, p<0.001). However, this higher mortality at 2 years was due to an early divergence in mortality by 30 days and was not due to a significant increase in late mortality between 30 days and 2 years (4.38% [31/707]vs. 3.76% [685/18,206], p = NS). Percutaneous coronary intervention during the index hospitalization was associated with a lower rate of in-hospital recurrent MI (1.6% vs. 4.5%, p<0.001) and lower two-year mortality (5.6% vs. 11.6%, p<0.001). Performance of coronary artery bypass graft surgery was also associated with a lower recurrent rate of MI (0.7% vs. 4.3%, p<0.001) and lower two-year mortality rate (7.95% vs. 10.6%, p = 0.0008).
CONCLUSIONS: Early recurrent MI is associated with increased mortality up to two years. However, most deaths occur early, and the risk of additional deaths between the index hospital period and two years was not significantly increased among patients with recurrent MI. Percutaneous coronary intervention during the index hospitalization was associated with a lower risk of recurrent MI and a lower risk of two-year mortality.
AD
Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 350 Longwood Avenue, 1st Floor, Boston, MA 02115, USA. mgibson@perfuse.org
PMID