Postpartum depression: Risks of cognitive impairment and psychopathology in the children
- Adele Viguera, MD
Adele Viguera, MD
- Director of Research, Women’s Mental Health; Assistant Professor in Psychiatry
- Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Peter P Roy-Byrne, MD
Peter P Roy-Byrne, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Psychiatry
- Section Editor — Depressive Disorders
- Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
- University of Washington School of Medicine
- Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
Charles J Lockwood, MD, MHCM
- Section Editor — Obstetrics
- Senior Vice President, USF Health
- Dean, Morsani College of Medicine
- Professor, Obstetrics and Gynecology
- University of South Florida
Postpartum depression may be related to cognitive impairment and psychopathology in the offspring [1-4]. It appears that general cognitive performance is impaired, as well as executive functioning, intelligence, and language development. In addition, postpartum depression may be associated with aggressive and antisocial behavior, anxiety, depression, and hyperactivity/impulsivity in the offspring. Postnatal depression is also associated with adverse effects upon infant and child development.
This topic reviews the association between postpartum depression and cognitive impairment and psychopathology in the offspring. The association of postnatal depression with abnormal infant and child development is discussed separately, as are the clinical features, assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of postpartum depression:To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information on subscription options, click below on the option that best describes you:
- Stein A, Pearson RM, Goodman SH, et al. Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. Lancet 2014; 384:1800.
- Vesga-López O, Blanco C, Keyes K, et al. Psychiatric disorders in pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65:805.
- O'Hara MW, Wisner KL. Perinatal mental illness: definition, description and aetiology. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2014; 28:3.
- National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. NICE clinical guideline 192. December 2014. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg192 (Accessed on January 28, 2016).
- Kingston D, Tough S, Whitfield H. Prenatal and postpartum maternal psychological distress and infant development: a systematic review. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2012; 43:683.
- Conroy S, Pariante CM, Marks MN, et al. Maternal psychopathology and infant development at 18 months: the impact of maternal personality disorder and depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012; 51:51.
- Koutra K, Chatzi L, Bagkeris M, et al. Antenatal and postnatal maternal mental health as determinants of infant neurodevelopment at 18 months of age in a mother-child cohort (Rhea Study) in Crete, Greece. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2013; 48:1335.
- Cornish AM, McMahon CA, Ungerer JA, et al. Postnatal depression and infant cognitive and motor development in the second postnatal year: The impact of depression chronicity and infant gender. Infant Behav Dev 2005; 28:407.
- Kaplan PS, Danko CM, Diaz A, Kalinka CJ. An associative learning deficit in 1-year-old infants of depressed mothers: role of depression duration. Infant Behav Dev 2011; 34:35.
- Quevedo LA, Silva RA, Godoy R, et al. The impact of maternal post-partum depression on the language development of children at 12 months. Child Care Health Dev 2012; 38:420.
- O'Hara MW, McCabe JE. Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 2013; 9:379.
- Sutter-Dallay AL, Murray L, Dequae-Merchadou L, et al. A prospective longitudinal study of the impact of early postnatal vs. chronic maternal depressive symptoms on child development. Eur Psychiatry 2011; 26:484.
- Pearson RM, Bornstein MH, Cordero M, et al. Maternal perinatal mental health and offspring academic achievement at age 16: the mediating role of childhood executive function. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2016; 57:491.
- Barker ED, Kirkham N, Ng J, Jensen SK. Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function. Br J Psychiatry 2013; 203:417.
- Evans J, Melotti R, Heron J, et al. The timing of maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development: a longitudinal study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2012; 53:632.
- Hay DF, Pawlby S, Waters CS, Sharp D. Antepartum and postpartum exposure to maternal depression: different effects on different adolescent outcomes. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2008; 49:1079.
- Kaplan PS, Danko CM, Everhart KD, et al. Maternal depression and expressive communication in one-year-old infants. Infant Behav Dev 2014; 37:398.
- Fletcher RJ, Feeman E, Garfield C, Vimpani G. The effects of early paternal depression on children's development. Med J Aust 2011; 195:685.
- Barker ED, Jaffee SR, Uher R, Maughan B. The contribution of prenatal and postnatal maternal anxiety and depression to child maladjustment. Depress Anxiety 2011; 28:696.
- Hanington L, Heron J, Stein A, Ramchandani P. Parental depression and child outcomes--is marital conflict the missing link? Child Care Health Dev 2012; 38:520.
- Pawlby S, Sharp D, Hay D, O'Keane V. Postnatal depression and child outcome at 11 years: the importance of accurate diagnosis. J Affect Disord 2008; 107:241.
- Naicker K, Wickham M, Colman I. Timing of first exposure to maternal depression and adolescent emotional disorder in a national Canadian cohort. PLoS One 2012; 7:e33422.
- Josefsson A, Sydsjö G. A follow-up study of postpartum depressed women: recurrent maternal depressive symptoms and child behavior after four years. Arch Womens Ment Health 2007; 10:141.
- Herba CM, Tremblay RE, Boivin M, et al. Maternal depressive symptoms and children's emotional problems: can early child care help children of depressed mothers? JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:830.
- Verkuijl NE, Richter L, Norris SA, et al. Postnatal depressive symptoms and child psychological development at 10 years: a prospective study of longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty cohort. Lancet Psychiatry 2014; 1:454.
- Herba CM. Maternal depression and child behavioural outcomes. Lancet Psychiatry 2014; 1:408.
- Fihrer I, McMahon CA, Taylor AJ. The impact of postnatal and concurrent maternal depression on child behaviour during the early school years. J Affect Disord 2009; 119:116.
- Halligan SL, Murray L, Martins C, Cooper PJ. Maternal depression and psychiatric outcomes in adolescent offspring: a 13-year longitudinal study. J Affect Disord 2007; 97:145.
- Murray L, Arteche A, Fearon P, et al. Maternal postnatal depression and the development of depression in offspring up to 16 years of age. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011; 50:460.
- Pearson RM, Evans J, Kounali D, et al. Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA Psychiatry 2013; 70:1312.
- Raposa E, Hammen C, Brennan P, Najman J. The long-term effects of maternal depression: early childhood physical health as a pathway to offspring depression. J Adolesc Health 2014; 54:88.
- Galéra C, Côté SM, Bouvard MP, et al. Early risk factors for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention trajectories from age 17 months to 8 years. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011; 68:1267.