- John F Modlin, MD
John F Modlin, MD
- Deputy Director, Polio Research
- Global Development
- Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
- Section Editors
- Martin S Hirsch, MD
Martin S Hirsch, MD
- Editor-in-Chief — Infectious Diseases
- Section Editor — Viral Infections
- Professor of Medicine
- Harvard Medical School
- Morven S Edwards, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Immunization against poliovirus infection represents one of the world's greatest medical achievements. The last cases of naturally occurring wild type paralytic poliomyelitis in the United States occurred during a small outbreak due to type 1 poliovirus in an unvaccinated religious community in 1978 to 1979 . All nations in the Western Hemisphere, Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Region are now free of poliomyelitis.
Issues related to paralytic poliomyelitis, the post-polio syndrome, and global eradication of poliomyelitis are discussed separately. (See "Polio and infectious diseases of the anterior horn" and "Post-polio syndrome" and "Global poliomyelitis eradication".)
Both inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were developed in the 1950s and have been used worldwide [2-4]:
●IPV is the only vaccine available for routine infant and childhood immunization in the United States and is the preferred vaccine for developed countries since it does not cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP).
●OPV has been the polio vaccine recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) for routine infant immunization in developing countries and for supplementary immunization activities in countries at increased risk of poliovirus transmission. Advantages of OPV include low cost, ease of administration, induction of mucosal immunity, and transmission of vaccine virus to unimmunized contacts; the major disadvantage is that OPV can cause VAPP in rare cases. (See 'Adverse effects' below.)
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- POLIOVIRUS VACCINES
- Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV)
- - Immune response and efficacy
- - Adverse effects
- Live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)
- - Trivalent vaccine
- - Bivalent and monovalent vaccines
- - Trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV switch
- - Adverse effects
- RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE WHO
- RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE CDC
- Infants and children
- Pregnant women
- Immunocompromised patients
- Recommendations for travelers
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS