Medline ® Abstracts for References 2-5
of 'Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Screening and management'
Increased risk for cancer in patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
Boardman LA, Thibodeau SN, Schaid DJ, Lindor NM, McDonnell SK, Burgart LJ, Ahlquist DA, Podratz KC, Pittelkow M, Hartmann LC
Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(11):896.
BACKGROUND: Some reports describe an increased risk for cancer in patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize occurrences of cancer in a large cohort of patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Tertiary care center.
PATIENTS: 34 patients with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome identified from Mayo Clinic records from 1945 to 1996.
MEASUREMENTS: Cases of cancer documented by chart review and telephone follow-up.
RESULTS: 26 cases of noncutaneous cancer developed in 18 of the 34 patients: 10 cases of gastrointestinal cancer and 16 cases of extraintestinal cancer. With the use of SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) data for comparison, the relative risk for cancer was 18.5 (95% CI, 8.5 to 35.2) in women with the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and 6.2 (CI, 2.5 to 12.8) in men with the syndrome (P = 0.001). In women, the relative risk for breast and gynecologic cancer was 20.3 (CI, 7.4 to 44.2).
CONCLUSIONS: The Peutz-Jeghers syndrome is associated with an increased risk for cancer. The relative risk for breast and gynecologic cancers is particularly high.
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a systematic review and recommendations for management.
Beggs AD, Latchford AR, Vasen HF, Moslein G, Alonso A, Aretz S, Bertario L, Blanco I, Bülow S, Burn J, Capella G, Colas C, Friedl W, Møller P, Hes FJ, Järvinen H, Mecklin JP, Nagengast FM, Parc Y, Phillips RK, Hyer W, Ponz de Leon M, Renkonen-Sinisalo L, Sampson JR, Stormorken A, Tejpar S, Thomas HJ, Wijnen JT, Clark SK, Hodgson SV
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS, MIM175200) is an autosomal dominant condition defined by the development of characteristic polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract and mucocutaneous pigmentation. The majority of patients that meet the clinical diagnostic criteria have a causative mutation in the STK11 gene, which is located at 19p13.3. The cancer risks in this condition are substantial, particularly for breast and gastrointestinal cancer, although ascertainment and publication bias may have led to overestimates in some publications. Current surveillance protocols are controversial and not evidence-based, due to the relative rarity of the condition. Initially, endoscopies are more likely to be done to detect polyps that may be a risk for future intussusception or obstruction rather than cancers, but surveillance for the various cancers for which these patients are susceptible is an important part of their later management. This review assesses the current literature on the clinical features and management of the condition, genotype-phenotype studies, and suggested guidelines for surveillance and management of individuals with PJS. The proposed guidelines contained in this article have been produced as a consensus statement on behalf of a group of European experts who met in Mallorca in 2007 and who have produced guidelines on the clinical management of Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis.
Department of Clinical Genetics, St Georges, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, UK.
High cancer risk in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a systematic review and surveillance recommendations.
van Lier MG, Wagner A, Mathus-Vliegen EM, Kuipers EJ, Steyerberg EW, van Leerdam ME
Am J Gastroenterol. 2010;105(6):1258.
OBJECTIVES: Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an autosomal dominant inherited disorder associated with increased cancer risk. Surveillance and patient management are, however, hampered by a wide range in cancer risk estimates. We therefore performed a systematic review to assess cancer risks in PJS patients and used these data to develop a surveillance recommendation.
METHODS: A systematic PubMed search was performed up to February 2009, and all original articles dealing with PJS patients with confirmed cancer diagnoses were included. Data involving cancer frequencies, mean ages at cancer diagnosis, relative risks (RRs), and cumulative risks were collected.
RESULTS: Twenty-one original articles, 20 cohort studies, and one meta-analysis fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The cohort studies showed some overlap in the patient population and included a total of 1,644 patients; 349 of them developed 384 malignancies at an average age of 42 years. The most common malignancy was colorectal cancer, followed by breast, small bowel, gastric, and pancreatic cancers. The reported lifetime risk for any cancer varied between 37 and 93%, with RRs ranging from 9.9 to 18 in comparison with the general population. Age-related cumulative risks were given for any cancer and gastrointestinal, gynecological, colorectal, pancreatic, and lung cancers.
CONCLUSIONS: PJS patients are markedly at risk for several malignancies, in particular gastrointestinal cancers and breast cancer. On the basis of these elevated risks, a surveillance recommendation is developed to detect malignancies in an early phase and to remove polyps that may be premalignant and may cause complications, so as to improve the outcome.
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
ACG clinical guideline: Genetic testing and management of hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes.
Syngal S, Brand RE, Church JM, Giardiello FM, Hampel HL, Burt RW, American College of Gastroenterology
Am J Gastroenterol. 2015;110(2):223. Epub 2015 Feb 3.
This guideline presents recommendations for the management of patients with hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes. The initial assessment is the collection of a family history of cancers and premalignant gastrointestinal conditions and should provide enough information to develop a preliminary determination of the risk of a familial predisposition to cancer. Age at diagnosis and lineage (maternal and/or paternal) should be documented for all diagnoses, especially in first- and second-degree relatives. When indicated, genetic testing for a germline mutation should be done on the most informative candidate(s) identified through the family history evaluation and/or tumor analysis to confirm a diagnosis and allow for predictive testing of at-risk relatives. Genetic testing should be conducted in the context of pre- and post-test genetic counseling to ensure the patient's informed decision making. Patients who meet clinical criteria for a syndrome as well as those with identified pathogenic germline mutations should receive appropriate surveillance measures in order to minimize their overall risk of developing syndrome-specific cancers. This guideline specifically discusses genetic testing and management of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), attenuated familial adenomatous polyposis (AFAP), MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, juvenile polyposis syndrome, Cowden syndrome, serrated (hyperplastic) polyposis syndrome, hereditary pancreatic cancer, and hereditary gastric cancer.
1]Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.