Medline ® Abstracts for References 12,13
of 'Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis'
Complete polarization of single intestinal epithelial cells upon activation of LKB1 by STRAD.
Baas AF, Kuipers J, van der Wel NN, Batlle E, Koerten HK, Peters PJ, Clevers HC
The LKB1 gene encodes a serine/threonine kinase that is mutated in the Peutz-Jeghers cancer syndrome. LKB1 is homologous to the Par-4 polarity genes in C. elegans and D. melanogaster. We have previously reported the identification and characterization of an LKB1-specific adaptor protein, STRAD, which activates LKB1 and translocates it from nucleus to cytoplasm. We have now constructed intestinal epithelial cell lines in which inducible STRAD activates LKB1. Upon LKB1 activation, single cells rapidly remodel their actin cytoskeleton to form an apical brush border. The junctional proteins ZO-1 and p120 redistribute in a dotted circle peripheral to the brush border, in the absence of cell-cell contacts. Apical and basolateral markers sort to their respective membrane domains. We conclude that LKB1 can induce complete polarity in intestinal epithelial cells. In contrast to current thinking on polarization of simple epithelia, these cells can fully polarize in the absence of junctional cell-cell contacts.
Hubrecht Laboratory, Center for Biomedical Genetics, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
A role for Drosophila LKB1 in anterior-posterior axis formation and epithelial polarity.
Martin SG, St Johnston D
The PAR-4 and PAR-1 kinases are necessary for the formation of the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis in Caenorhabditis elegans. PAR-1 is also required for A-P axis determination in Drosophila. Here we show that the Drosophila par-4 homologue, lkb1, is required for the early A-P polarity of the oocyte, and for the repolarization of the oocyte cytoskeleton that defines the embryonic A-P axis. LKB1 is phosphorylated by PAR-1 in vitro, and overexpression of LKB1 partially rescues the par-1 phenotype. These two kinases therefore function in a conserved pathway for axis formation in flies and worms. lkb1 mutant clones also disrupt apical-basal epithelial polarity, suggesting a general role in cell polarization. The human homologue, LKB1, is mutated in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome and is regulated by prenylation and by phosphorylation by protein kinase A. We show that protein kinase A phosphorylates Drosophila LKB1 on a conserved site that is important for its activity. Thus, Drosophila and human LKB1 may be functional homologues, suggesting that loss of cell polarity may contribute to tumour formation in individuals with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
The Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK.