Patient education: Permanent sterilization procedures for women (Beyond the Basics)
- Kari P Braaten, MD, MPH
Kari P Braaten, MD, MPH
- Instructor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
- Caryn Dutton, MD, MS
Caryn Dutton, MD, MS
- Instructor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology
- Harvard Medical School
Surgical sterilization is a safe, highly effective, permanent, and convenient form of contraception. The most common surgical sterilization procedure for women is called a tubal ligation or having the "tubes tied." The fallopian tubes are the passageway for the egg to travel from the ovary to the uterus (figure 1). This is where the egg becomes fertilized by the male's sperm prior to traveling to the uterus. In tubal sterilization, the fallopian tubes are both cut and separated or they are sealed shut. This prevents the egg and sperm from meeting and thus prevents pregnancy.
Sterilization may be performed in one of several ways, depending upon where the procedure is done (medical office versus operating room) and when it is done (after childbirth or at another time).
●Laparoscopic sterilization is done in the operating room any time other than after childbirth. It requires general anesthesia. (See 'Laparoscopic sterilization' below.)
●Minilaparotomy is performed in an operating room, using general or regional anesthesia, often one to two days after a woman gives birth. (See 'Minilaparotomy' below.)
●Hysteroscopic sterilization may be done in the office or operating room and is done at a time other than after childbirth. Hysteroscopic sterilization is often done with only local anesthesia, though sometimes sedation is also given. (See 'Hysteroscopic sterilization' below.)
Other methods of birth control are discussed separately. (See "Patient education: Barrier methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Birth control; which method is right for me? (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hormonal methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Long-acting methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)".)
DECIDING TO HAVE A TUBAL LIGATION
Sterilization is a major decision; it means that a woman and her partner do not ever want to have a child in the future. A woman's decision to undergo sterilization must be her own choice and not forced on her by her family, partner, or healthcare provider.
In the United States, a woman's husband or partner is not required to give consent for the procedure, although both partners should have an understanding of the procedure as well as tubal sterilization's benefits, alternatives, and potential risks. The woman and her partner should review the risks and benefits of all methods of contraception, including male sterilization (vasectomy). (See "Patient education: Vasectomy (Beyond the Basics)".)
The clinician should provide an explanation of the details of the procedure, including the options for anesthesia (general, spinal, local), and the risk of pregnancy following the procedure (see 'Permanent sterilization outcomes' below), including the chance of ectopic pregnancy (when a pregnancy begins to grow outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes). A woman may change her mind at any time before the procedure.
Tubal sterilization should be considered permanent; reversing the procedure involves major surgery, is not always successful, and is rarely covered by insurance plans.
Alternatives — Alternatives to permanent female sterilization include permanent male sterilization (vasectomy), long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) including intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants (in the skin of the arm), and short-acting reversible types of contraception (birth control pills/patch/vaginal ring, condoms, diaphragm, cervical cap, or the contraceptive injection).
These methods are discussed in detail in separate topic review. (See "Patient education: Barrier methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Hormonal methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Long-acting methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)" and "Patient education: Vasectomy (Beyond the Basics)".)
Regret after sterilization — Between 2 and 20 percent of women regret their decision to undergo sterilization [1-3]. The factor most strongly associated with regret is being less than 30 years old at the time of sterilization. The younger a woman is when she has a sterilization procedure, the more likely she is to regret that decision . Other factors that might cause a woman to regret her sterilization procedure include relationship problems at the time of the procedure, stress due to recent pregnancy complications, and being in a new relationship after sterilization.
For these reasons, women who are younger than 30, have recently given birth and had significant complications (eg, premature birth, death of an infant), or who are having difficulty with their relationship may want to consider other birth control options if there is concern that they might regret their decision. A healthcare provider may recommend that sterilization be delayed until the woman is sure of her decision, is aware of the risks and benefits, and is aware of the alternatives to permanent sterilization. In these situations, a woman might be better off with a long-acting reversible method of contraception (eg, intrauterine devices or the contraceptive implant), which are equally as effective as sterilization at preventing pregnancy, but can be removed if the woman decides she would like to have another child.
Timing of sterilization — Sterilization can be performed at any time during a woman's menstrual cycle, although having the procedure just after the menstrual period reduces the risk that the woman will be pregnant at the time of the surgery.
Sterilization can also be performed after childbirth (postpartum), after an abortion, or in conjunction with another surgical procedure (eg, gallbladder removal). Ideally, postpartum procedures are performed immediately after childbirth or within 24 hours, although the procedure may be done up to seven days later. Delaying the procedure for more than 7 days increases the difficulty of the procedure and the risk of infection.
Preventing pregnancy before and after sterilization — Another method of birth control (condom, diaphragm, birth control pill, injection, IUD, etc) should be used before sterilization to decrease the risk of pregnancy. A woman can become pregnant if fertilization occurs just prior to the procedure. Performing the procedure immediately postpartum, at the time of an abortion, or during a woman's menstrual period reduces the chance of becoming pregnant at the time of the procedure.
Although sterilization procedures provide very effective birth control, they do not prevent sexually transmitted infections. Condoms are the only birth control method that is known to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections, and should be used by anyone who might be at risk, such as women with more than one sex partner or those whose partner has other partners. (See "Patient education: Barrier methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)".)
PERMANENT STERILIZATION PROCEDURES
Laparoscopic sterilization — Laparoscopic sterilization is a surgical procedure that is done in an operating room at a time other than after childbirth. General anesthesia is required. During the procedure, a small incision is made near the belly button and in the lower abdomen and a thin camera device (a laparoscope) is used to view the fallopian tubes. The physician either uses heat to seal the tubes shut, or uses rings or clips to close the fallopian tubes. Another method clinicians may offer for laparoscopic sterilization is "bilateral salpingectomy," in which both tubes are removed entirely.
Minilaparotomy — A minilaparotomy is a surgical procedure done one to two days after childbirth. It is done in an operating room using general or regional (eg, spinal) anesthesia. The clinician makes a small incision (one to three inches) in the abdomen, and then removes a section of the fallopian tubes on each side. When this procedure is done in the postpartum period, it does not lengthen the hospital stay.
One advantage of minilaparotomy is that a portion of the tube is completely removed, which ensures that the fallopian tubes have been completely cut. Disadvantages of minilaparotomy include a greater need for pain medication, a slightly longer recovery time, and a larger surgical incision than with a laparoscopic procedure .
Hysteroscopic sterilization — Hysteroscopic sterilization is a procedure available only in the United States. The procedure uses very small coils (brand name: Essure), which are inserted through the cervix and uterus into the fallopian tubes (picture 1). This can be done in the office or operating room using local anesthesia or sedation.
After the coils are placed, scar tissue develops around them, causing the tubes to become sealed shut. This process happens gradually over time, and the woman must therefore use another form of birth control for three months after the coils are placed. At this time, a radiograph test called a hysterosalpingogram (HSG) is performed to confirm that the tubes are blocked. If the tubes are not completely blocked after three months, the woman is asked to continue to use another form of birth control for another three months and the HSG is repeated six months from when the coils were placed. It is important to have the HSG test to confirm that the procedure worked before stopping other methods of birth control.
The advantages of hysteroscopic sterilization are that it can be done without sedation or general anesthesia (eg, the woman is not sleepy and may drive herself home), and does not require incisions. Compared to other forms of surgical sterilization, hysteroscopic sterilization allows the woman to spend less time in the hospital and causes less severe postoperative pain.
The disadvantages of hysteroscopic sterilization include the possibility that the coils cannot be successfully placed in both tubes (<2 percent), need for another method of birth control for three months after the coils are placed, and the need for a test to confirm that the procedure has been successful. In addition, following coil placement, some women experience pelvic pain, irregular bleeding, or an allergic reaction to the metal in the device (nickel). (See 'Complications' below.)
PERMANENT STERILIZATION OUTCOMES
Complications — Complications of laparoscopic and minilaparotomy procedures occur in approximately 1 of every 1000 procedures. The most common complications include infection, injury to other organs, internal bleeding, and problems related to anesthesia.
Complications from hysteroscopic sterilization are rare, but occasionally cause ongoing symptoms. The most common complication is perforation of the uterus (when an instrument creates a small tear through the uterine wall); other possible complications include abdominal pain, heavy or irregular menstrual periods, and allergy or sensitivity to the metal (nickel) in the coils. In the event of serious complications, surgery may be required to remove the coils. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has advised that patients should be made aware of these potential effects. The FDA also advised that the procedure may not be well suited to women with a prior history of pelvic pain, menstrual abnormalities, or allergies to metal.
Menstrual periods — There is no evidence that bleeding or uterine cramping increase after sterilization. In fact, women who undergo sterilization are more likely to have fewer days of bleeding during menstruation, a lower amount of blood loss, and less menstrual pain. However, sterilized women have described more irregularity in their menstrual cycle than women who were not sterilized. Women may also notice changes in their menstrual cycle if they are stop a hormonal method of birth control after their sterilization.
Sexual desire — Sterilization does not affect sexual desire or performance.
Pregnancy — It is uncommon for a woman to become pregnant after a sterilization procedure, though no method of contraception can prevent pregnancy 100 percent of the time. The long-term pregnancy rate for women who have had a sterilization procedure is less than 1 percent (table 1). One study found that the pregnancy rate for women who underwent hysteroscopic sterilization was slightly higher than for those who had a laparoscopic procedure; however, rates were similar when women followed the protocol carefully for hysteroscopic sterilization (ie, returned for the follow-up HSG test to confirm that the procedure worked) .
When pregnancy occurs after a sterilization procedure, it is more likely to be an ectopic pregnancy than if the woman had not had a sterilization procedure. An ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy that grows outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which can be life-threatening if not promptly treated. For this reason, any woman who has had undergone sterilization and then misses or is late for a menstrual period, or is otherwise concerned that she might be pregnant, should see her healthcare provider as soon as possible. (See "Patient education: Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)".)
AFTER PERMANENT STERILIZATION SURGERY
Laparoscopy and minilaparotomy — A few hours after laparoscopic or minilaparotomy sterilization, most women are able to go home. Someone should be available to drive her and help as needed. There will be some discomfort at the incision site and menstrual-type cramping; this can be treated with pain medication such acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). Some women will have a sore throat (from a tube placed to help with breathing during general anesthesia), neck or shoulder pain, vaginal discharge, or light bleeding.
Most women are able to return to a normal routine within a couple of days. The woman is usually instructed not place anything in the vagina (eg, tampons, douches) and to avoid sexual intercourse sex for approximately two weeks. (See "Patient education: Care after gynecologic surgery (Beyond the Basics)".)
Hysteroscopy — After hysteroscopic sterilization, most women are able to drive themselves home or back to work/school. If sedation was used, the woman should have someone else drive her home. Most women experience mild cramping, which can be treated with an over-the-counter pain medication such as acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin). A small amount of vaginal bleeding or discharge may occur for a few days after the procedure; no treatment is required. Most women are able to return to normal activities the same or the next day.
Women who undergo hysteroscopic sterilization need to be sure to use an additional form of birth control (eg, pills, injection, implant, condoms, IUD) until the HSG test is done, usually three months later, to confirm that both tubes are completely blocked.
WHERE TO GET MORE INFORMATION
Your healthcare provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem.
This article will be updated as needed on our web site (www.uptodate.com/patients). Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for healthcare professionals, are also available. Some of the most relevant are listed below.
Patient level information — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials.
The Basics — The Basics patient education pieces answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials.
Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Patient education: Barrier methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Birth control; which method is right for me? (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Hormonal methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Long-acting methods of birth control (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Vasectomy (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Ectopic (tubal) pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)
Patient education: Care after gynecologic surgery (Beyond the Basics)
Professional level information — Professional level articles are designed to keep doctors and other health professionals up-to-date on the latest medical findings. These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the research on which they are based. Professional level articles are best for people who are comfortable with a lot of medical terminology and who want to read the same materials their doctors are reading.
Intrauterine contraception: Devices, candidates, and selection
Contraception: Issues specific to adolescents
Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception
Fertility awareness-based methods of pregnancy prevention
Hormonal contraception for suppression of menstruation
Diaphragm, cervical cap, and sponge
Contraceptive counseling and selection
Overview of the use of estrogen-progestin contraceptives
Progestin-only pills (POPs) for contraception
Risks and side effects associated with estrogen-progestin contraceptives
Laparoscopic female sterilization
The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
●National Library of Medicine
●Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada (SOGC)
- Grubb GS, Peterson HB, Layde PM, Rubin GL. Regret after decision to have a tubal sterilization. Fertil Steril 1985; 44:248.
- Wilcox LS, Chu SY, Eaker ED, et al. Risk factors for regret after tubal sterilization: 5 years of follow-up in a prospective study. Fertil Steril 1991; 55:927.
- Hillis SD, Marchbanks PA, Tylor LR, Peterson HB. Poststerilization regret: findings from the United States Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93:889.
- Curtis KM, Mohllajee AP, Peterson HB. Regret following female sterilization at a young age: a systematic review. Contraception 2006; 73:205.
- Cooper JM, Carignan CS, Cher D, et al. Microinsert nonincisional hysteroscopic sterilization. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 102:59.
- Perkins RB, Morgan JR, Awosogba TP, et al. Gynecologic Outcomes After Hysteroscopic and Laparoscopic Sterilization Procedures. Obstet Gynecol 2016; 128:843.
- Peterson HB, Xia Z, Hughes JM, et al. The risk of pregnancy after tubal sterilization: Findings from the U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174:1161.
- Data from Conceptus Incorporated, San Carlos, CA.
- Levy B, Levie MD, Childers ME. A summary of reported pregnancies after hysteroscopic sterilization. J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2007; 14:271.
- Panel P, Grosdemouge I. Predictive factors of Essure implant placement failure: prospective, multicenter study of 495 patients. Fertil Steril 2010; 93:29.
- Beckwith AW. Persistent pain after hysteroscopic sterilization with microinserts. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111:511.
All topics are updated as new information becomes available. Our peer review process typically takes one to six weeks depending on the issue.