Medline ® Abstracts for References 8,68,69
of 'Perioperative management of patients receiving anticoagulants'
Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Spencer FA, Mayr M, Jaffer AK, Eckman MH, Dunn AS, Kunz R, American College of Chest Physicians
Chest. 2012;141(2 Suppl):e326S.
BACKGROUND: This guideline addresses the management of patients who are receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy and require an elective surgery or procedure.
METHODS: The methods herein follow those discussed in the Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines. Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines article of this supplement.
RESULTS: In patients requiring vitamin K antagonist (VKA) interruption before surgery, we recommend stopping VKAs 5 days before surgery instead of a shorter time before surgery (Grade 1B). In patients with a mechanical heart valve, atrial fibrillation, or VTE at high risk for thromboembolism, we suggest bridging anticoagulation instead of no bridging during VKA interruption (Grade 2C); in patients at low risk, we suggest no bridging instead of bridging (Grade 2C). In patients who require a dental procedure, we suggest continuing VKAs with an oral prohemostatic agent or stopping VKAs 2 to 3 days before the procedure instead of alternative strategies (Grade 2C). In moderate- to high-risk patients who are receiving acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and require noncardiac surgery, we suggest continuing ASA around the time of surgery instead of stopping ASA 7 to 10 days before surgery (Grade 2C). In patients with a coronary stent who require surgery, we recommend deferring surgery>6 weeks after bare-metal stent placement and>6 months after drug-eluting stent placement instead of undertaking surgery within these time periods (Grade 1C); in patients requiring surgery within 6 weeks of bare-metal stent placement or within 6 months of drug-eluting stent placement, we suggest continuing antiplatelet therapy perioperatively instead of stopping therapy 7 to 10 days before surgery (Grade 2C).
CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative antithrombotic management is based on risk assessment for thromboembolism and bleeding, and recommended approaches aim to simplify patient management and minimize adverse clinical outcomes.
Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
Parenteral anticoagulants: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition).
Hirsh J, Bauer KA, Donati MB, Gould M, Samama MM, Weitz JI
Chest. 2008;133(6 Suppl):141S.
This chapter describes the pharmacology of approved parenteral anticoagulants, including the indirect anticoagulants, unfractionated heparin (UFH), low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), fondaparinux, and danaparoid as well as the direct thrombin inhibitors hirudin, bivalirudin, and argatroban. UFH is a heterogeneous mixture of glycosaminoglycans that bind to antithrombin via a unique pentasaccharide sequence and catalyze the inactivation of thrombin factor Xa and other clotting factors. Heparin also binds to cells and other plasma proteins, endowing it with unpredictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and can lead to nonhemorrhagic side effects, such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and osteoporosis. LMWHs have greater inhibitory activity against factor Xa than thrombin and exhibit less binding to cells and proteins than heparin. Consequently, LMWH preparations have more predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, have a longer half-life than heparin, and have a lower risk of nonhemorrhagic side effects. LMWHs can be administered once or twice daily by subcutaneous injection, without anticoagulant monitoring. Based on their greater convenience, LMWHs have replaced UFH for many clinical indications. Fondaparinux, a synthetic pentasaccharide, catalyzes the inhibition of factor Xa, butnot thrombin, in an antithrombin-dependent fashion. Fondaparinux binds only to antithrombin; therefore, HIT and osteoporosis are unlikely to occur. Fondaparinux has excellent bioavailability when administered subcutaneously, has a longer half-life than LMWHs, and is given once daily by subcutaneous injection in fixed doses, without anticoagulant monitoring. Three parenteral direct thrombin inhibitors and danaparoid are approved as alternatives to heparin in HIT patients.
From the Hamilton Civic Hospitals, Henderson Research Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Brief communication: Preoperative anticoagulant activity after bridging low-molecular-weight heparin for temporary interruption of warfarin.
O'Donnell MJ, Kearon C, Johnson J, Robinson M, Zondag M, Turpie I, Turpie AG
Ann Intern Med. 2007;146(3):184.
BACKGROUND: Preoperative low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) is often used when warfarin therapy is interrupted for surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the preoperative anticoagulant activity of LMWH following a standardized "bridging" regimen.
DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.
SETTING: Single university hospital.
PATIENTS: Consecutive patients who had warfarin therapy interrupted before an invasive procedure.
INTERVENTION: Enoxaparin, 1 mg/kg of body weight, twice daily. The last dose was administered the evening before surgery.
MEASUREMENTS: Blood anti-factor Xa heparin levels measured shortly before surgery.
RESULTS: Preoperative anti-Xa heparin levels were obtained in 80 patients at an average of 14 hours after the last dose of enoxaparin was administered. The average anti-Xa heparin level was 0.6 U/mL. The anti-Xa heparin level, measured shortly before surgery, was 0.5 U/mL or greater in 54 (68%) patients and 1.0 U/mL or greater in 13 (16%) patients. A shorter interval since the last dose (P<0.001) and a higher body mass index (P = 0.001) were associated with higher preoperative anti-Xa heparin levels.
LIMITATIONS: The small sample size limits accurate estimates of the frequency of the clinical outcomes. A single regimen of LMWH was evaluated.
CONCLUSIONS: Anti-Xa heparin levels often remain high at the time of surgery if a last dose of a twice-daily regimen of LMWH is given the evening before surgery.
McMaster University and Hamilton Health Sciences Foundation, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. firstname.lastname@example.org