Medline ® Abstracts for References 57,66,67
of 'Perioperative management of patients receiving anticoagulants'
Periprocedural heparin bridging in patients receiving vitamin K antagonists: systematic review and meta-analysis of bleeding and thromboembolic rates.
Siegal D, Yudin J, Kaatz S, Douketis JD, Lim W, Spyropoulos AC
Circulation. 2012;126(13):1630. Epub 2012 Aug 21.
BACKGROUND: Periprocedural bridging with unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin aims to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events in patients receiving long-term vitamin K antagonists. Optimal periprocedural anticoagulation has not been established.
METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases (2001-2010) were searched for English-language studies including patients receiving heparin bridging during interruption of vitamin K antagonists for elective procedures. Data were independently collected by 2 investigators (κ=0.90). The final review included 34 studies with 1 randomized trial. Thromboembolic events occurred in 73 of 7118 bridged patients (pooled incidence, 0.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0.0-3.4) and 32 of 5160 nonbridged patients (pooled incidence, 0.6%; 95% CI, 0.0-1.2). There was no difference in the risk of thromboembolic events in 8 studies comparing bridged and nonbridged groups (odds ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.42-1.54). Bridging was associated with an increased risk of overall bleeding in 13 studies (odds ratio, 5.40; 95% CI, 3.00-9.74) and major bleeding in 5 studies (odds ratio, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.52-8.50) comparing bridged and nonbridged patients. There was no difference in thromboembolic events (odds ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.04-2.09) but an increased risk of overall bleeding (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.27-4.08) with full versus prophylactic/intermediate-dose low-molecular-weight heparin bridging. Low-thromboembolic-risk and/or non-vitamin K antagonist patient groups were used for comparison. Study quality was poor with heterogeneity for some analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K antagonist-treated patients receiving periprocedural heparin bridging appear to be at increased risk of overall and major bleeding and at similar risk of thromboembolic events compared to nonbridged patients. Randomized trials are needed to define the role of periprocedural heparin bridging.
Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Thromboembolism, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
Variations in perioperative warfarin management: outcomes and practice patterns at nine hospitals.
Jaffer AK, Brotman DJ, Bash LD, Mahmood SK, Lott B, White RH
Am J Med. 2010;123(2):141.
BACKGROUND: Before surgery, most patients receiving oral anticoagulation require temporary cessation of treatment. Physicians sometimes substitute heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin for oral anticoagulation in the perioperative setting ("bridging therapy"). We sought to characterize rates of bridging therapy use at 9 clinical centers to determine the extent to which the use of bridging is explained by clinical characteristics of patients (vs physician style) and to determine the 30-day incidence of thrombotic and bleeding complications.
METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter, observational study. Periprocedural bridging anticoagulation was classified as none, prophylactic-dose heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin, or full-dose heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin. We collected data on patient and surgery characteristics, anticoagulation management, and thromboembolic and bleeding events.
RESULTS: A total of 492 of 497 consecutive patients completed the study; 54%, 14%, and 33% of patients had no, prophylactic, and full (therapeutic) doses, respectively, of heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin postprocedure. Two hospitals treated more than 80% of their patients with full-dose heparin, whereas the remaining 7 hospitals used full-dose heparin in an average of 22% of cases (P<.001); this variation persisted after adjustment for patient characteristics. There were 4 thromboembolic events (0.8%) and 16 major bleeding events (3.2%). Full-dose heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin postprocedure was associated with a higher likelihood of major bleeding: adjusted odds ratio 4.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-14.7).
CONCLUSION: Management of anticoagulation after an invasive procedure varies widely and is not explained by clinical characteristics of patients alone. The risk of major bleeding is strongly associated with the use of postoperative therapeutic doses of heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin.
Division of Hospital Medicine, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Fla, USA.
Predictors of major bleeding in peri-procedural anticoagulation management.
Tafur AJ, McBane R 2nd, Wysokinski WE, Litin S, Daniels P, Slusser J, Hodge D, Beckman MG, Heit JA
J Thromb Haemost. 2012 Feb;10(2):261-7.
BACKGROUND: Appropriate periprocedural management for chronically anticoagulated patients requires assessment of patient-specific thrombosis and bleeding risks. However, predictors of post-procedure bleeding are unknown.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the 3-month cumulative incidence and independent predictors of peri-procedural bleeding in chronically anticoagulated patients requiring temporary warfarin interruption for an invasive procedure.
METHODS: In a protocol driven, cohort study design, all patients referred to the Mayo Clinic Thrombophilia Center for peri-procedural anticoagulation management (1997-2007; n = 2182), were followed forward in time to determine the 3-month cumulative incidence of peri-procedural bleeding (Kaplan-Meier product limit) and potential predictors of bleeding (Cox proportional hazards). Decisions to 'bridge' with low-molecular-weight heparin were based on estimated thromboembolism and bleeding risk.
RESULTS: Indications for chronicanticoagulation included venous thromboembolism (38%), atrial fibrillation (30%) and mechanical heart valves (27%). Of these, 1496 (69%) patients received bridging therapy. The 3-month cumulative incidence rates of major and overall bleeding were 2.1% and 5.1%, respectively. Major bleeding occurred more frequently in patients receiving bridging therapy (3% vs. 1%; P = 0.017). Independent predictors (hazard ratio; 95% confidence interval) of major bleeding included mitral mechanical heart valve (2.2; 1.1-4.3), active cancer (1.8; 1.0-3.1), prior bleeding history (2.6; 1.5-4.5) and re-initiation of heparin therapy within 24 h after the procedure (1.9; 1.1-3.4).
CONCLUSION: Factors predisposing to peri-procedural bleeding are primarily patient-specific. Premature heparin re-initiation is an avoidable provider-specific variable to consider.
Mayo Clinic Thrombophilia Center, Gonda Vascular Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.