Penicillin allergy: Delayed hypersensitivity reactions
- Roland Solensky, MD
Roland Solensky, MD
- Oregon State University/Oregon Health and Science University College of Pharmacy
Penicillin is the most commonly reported medication allergy, and in all of its forms is self-reported by about 5 to 10 percent of patients [1-3]. Many of these patients have delayed forms of hypersensitivity, which are defined as reactions that begin after six hours following a dose and typically after days of treatment.
The epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of the most common types of delayed reactions to penicillins will be discussed here.
A drug-allergic (or hypersensitivity) reaction is defined as a specific immunologic reaction to a drug. The classification and pathogenesis of drug allergies are discussed in detail separately. (See "Drug allergy: Classification and clinical features" and "Drug allergy: Pathogenesis".)
The World Allergy Organization (WAO) has recommended categorizing immunologic drug reactions based upon the timing of the appearance of symptoms . This system defines two general types of reactions: immediate and delayed.
●Immediate reactions classically begin within one hour of the first administered dose and may begin within minutes. However, some immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated reactions appear after one hour, particularly if the drug was administered orally. Taking the medication with food may further slow absorption. Nevertheless, this period of one hour identifies many of these reactions. When allergic sensitization first develops, the initial symptoms may appear during the latter days of treatment (ie, not following first dose of the course), but usually within an hour of a dose, and then escalate rapidly. (See "Penicillin allergy: Immediate reactions".)
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- TAKING A USEFUL DRUG ALLERGY HISTORY
- COMMON CUTANEOUS REACTIONS
- - Maculopapular cutaneous eruptions
- - Delayed urticarial eruptions
- - Relationship with viral infections
- - Warning signs of potentially severe reactions
- Referral for allergy evaluation
- Management of symptoms
- Future use of penicillins
- - Children
- - Adults
- RARE REACTIONS
- - Fixed drug eruption
- - Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis
- - DRESS/DiHS
- - Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis
- - Serum sickness-like reactions
- - Drug fever
- - Drug-induced cytopenias
- SOCIETY GUIDELINE LINKS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS