Contributor disclosures are reviewed for conflicts of interest by the editorial group. When found, these are addressed by vetting through a multi-level review process, and through requirements for references to be provided to support the content. Appropriately referenced content is required of all authors and must conform to UpToDate standards of evidence.
INTRODUCTION — Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) affects millions of women; approximately 200,000 inpatient surgical procedures for prolapse are performed annually in the United States [1,2]. Eleven to 19 percent of women will undergo surgery for prolapse or incontinence by age 80 to 85 years, and 30 percent of these women will require an additional prolapse repair procedure [3,4].
Women with symptomatic POP experience daily discomfort, as well as interference with sexual function and exercise. Reconstructive surgery for women with prolapse consists of some combination of resuspension of the vaginal apex and anterior and posterior vaginal walls. The choice of a primary surgical procedure for women with POP depends upon a variety of considerations, including the anatomic site of prolapse, presence of urinary or fecal incontinence, health status, and patient preferences.
The process of choosing a surgical procedure for women with POP who have not had a prior prolapse repair will be reviewed here. Evaluation of women with POP, conservative management, and specific repair procedures are discussed separately. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management" and "Vaginal pessary treatment of prolapse and incontinence" and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of apical prolapse (uterine or vaginal vault prolapse)" and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse" and "Surgical management of posterior vaginal defects" and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Obliterative procedures (colpocleisis)".)
CANDIDATES FOR SURGICAL TREATMENT — Candidates for surgical repair of POP are women with symptomatic prolapse who have failed or declined conservative management.
Women with symptomatic prolapse — Reconstructive surgery for POP should be performed only in women who have symptomatic prolapse, with few exceptions. Surgical correction of asymptomatic POP or non-bothersome POP is of uncertain benefit and adds perioperative risks.
POP symptoms include pelvic pressure, sensation of a vaginal bulge, urinary retention, and/or difficult defecation; some women need to reduce the prolapse using a finger in the vagina (also referred to as splinting) to urinate or defecate. Prolapsed vaginal tissue may protrude, leading to chronic discharge and bleeding from ulceration. Such symptoms may interfere with daily activities, sexual function, or exercise. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management", section on 'Clinical manifestations'.)
Many women have asymptomatic POP; approximately 40 percent of women are found to have stage II or greater prolapse upon routine pelvic examination [5-8]. There is no indication for repair of asymptomatic POP as an isolated procedure.
When women undergo other pelvic procedures (eg, vaginal hysterectomy, stress urinary incontinence [SUI] surgery), some surgeons repair asymptomatic prolapse to prevent the need for subsequent surgery. This practice is based upon the assumption that prolapse will progress. This approach makes sense to patients and surgeons but remains unproven and may increase surgical morbidity. Interestingly, the natural history of prolapse does not follow a progressive course in all women. Data suggest that the course is progressive until menopause, after which the degree of prolapse may follow a course of alternating progression and regression [9-11]. On the other hand, in addition to premenopausal status, risk factors for the progression of POP include obesity and hysterectomy [12,13]. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management", section on 'Risk factors'.)
Given the paucity of data regarding repair of asymptomatic POP, for most women with asymptomatic stage 0 to 2 prolapse who are undergoing other pelvic floor procedures (eg, SUI surgery), we suggest not performing prolapse repair. Prolapse repair for asymptomatic women at the time of other pelvic surgery is a reasonable option in women with advanced prolapse (stages 3 or 4) or risk factors for prolapse progression (eg, concomitant hysterectomy, premenopausal status, obesity).
Combined surgical treatment of POP and SUI is discussed separately. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence in women: Combined surgical treatment", section on 'SUI with asymptomatic POP'.)
Women who decline or fail conservative therapy — First line management of POP is conservative therapy. The mainstay of nonsurgical treatment for POP is the vaginal pessary. Pessaries are silicone devices that are inserted into the vagina and support the pelvic organs. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is another conservative treatment option. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management", section on 'Conservative management'.)
Prolapse is typically a chronic problem, and many women ultimately prefer surgery to conservative therapy since successful surgery does not require ongoing maintenance. In the patients who can be fit with a pessary, approximately 40 percent of women discontinue pessary use within one to two years of use. It is difficult to estimate how many women who choose to have a pessary go on to have surgery. (See "Vaginal pessary treatment of prolapse and incontinence", section on 'Outcomes of pessary treatment'.)
Women finished with childbearing — Pelvic support may be disrupted during pregnancy, and particularly following a vaginal birth. Most surgeons recommend delaying surgical management of POP until childbearing is complete. Small case studies have reported successful pregnancy after uterine-sparing surgery, but no study has specifically investigated the risk of developing recurrent POP after delivery. Seven pregnancies have been reported with one following vaginal and cesarean delivery .
Young or elderly women — Patients at a young age are at higher risk of prolapse recurrence but lower overall risk of complications from surgery compared with older women (table 1) [14-16]. However, procedures with longer efficacy (eg, abdominal sacral colpopexy rather than vaginal sacrospinous ligament suspension) have higher surgical risk. Thus, it is recommended, especially for younger patients, to understand that choosing procedures with higher efficacy may come at the expense of higher risk.
POP repair can be safely performed in many elderly women. In contrast with younger women, older women are at lower risk of recurrence and higher risk of complications from surgery compared with younger women [14-16]. In a cohort of 267 patients who were > or = 75 years old, 26 percent of the patients had a significant perioperative complication at the time of surgery for POP. The most common perioperative complication was blood transfusion or significant blood loss, pulmonary edema, and postoperative congestive heart failure; however, the overall perioperative morbidity rate in elderly women who undergo urogynecologic surgery is low. Independent risk factors that were predictive of a patient having a perioperative complication were the length of surgery, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease .
Obese women — Although obesity is a risk factor for new onset and recurrent POP [14,15], obese women appear to have no difference in outcome of surgical correction of apical prolapse compared with non-obese women . Many surgeons feel that obese patients are good candidates for the most durable repair, abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Unfortunately, the open abdominal approach in the obese patient increases the risk usually in the form of wound complications .
GENERAL APPROACH TO CHOICE OF PROCEDURE — The choice of a primary procedure for POP includes a variety of factors:
●Reconstructive or obliterative – Most women with symptomatic POP are treated with a reconstructive procedure. Obliterative procedures (eg, colpocleisis) are reserved for women who cannot tolerate more extensive surgery or who are not planning future vaginal intercourse.
●Concomitant hysterectomy – When apical prolapse is repaired, the decision must be made whether to perform a hysterectomy as a part of the procedure.
●Surgical route for repair of multiple sites of prolapse – Reconstructive surgery for POP often involves repair of multiple anatomic sites of prolapse (apical, anterior, posterior). The choice of surgical route depends upon the optimal approach for the combination of prolapse sites.
●Concomitant anti-incontinence surgery – Symptomatic POP often coexists with SUI and, in some women, anal incontinence. POP repair must be coordinated with treatment of incontinence.
●Use of surgical mesh – Surgical mesh is used in abdominal POP repair. Use in transvaginal procedures has increased, but questions have arisen about the safety of this approach.
A summary of all major decisions involved in choosing a primary surgical procedure to repair POP is presented in the figure (algorithm 1).
RECONSTRUCTIVE VERSUS OBLITERATIVE PROCEDURES — The choice of a reconstructive or obliterative procedure depends upon the medical status and sexual function of the patient.
Reconstructive surgery surgically corrects the prolapsed vagina and aims to restore normal anatomy, while obliterative surgery corrects prolapse by removing and/or closing off all or a portion of the vaginal canal (ie, colpocleisis or colpectomy) to reduce the viscera back into the pelvis . Another difference between the two types of procedures is that reconstructive surgery can be performed using a vaginal or abdominal approach, while all obliterative surgeries are performed using the vaginal approach.
Most women with symptomatic POP are treated with a reconstructive procedure. Obliterative procedures are reserved for women who cannot tolerate more extensive surgery or who are not planning future vaginal intercourse. The advantages of obliterative procedures in this population are that such procedures typically have a short operative duration, low risk of perioperative morbidity, and an extremely low risk of prolapse recurrence. The obvious disadvantages are the elimination of the potential for vaginal intercourse, as well as the inability to evaluate the cervix or uterus via a vaginal route (eg, cervical cytology or endometrial biopsy).
Colpocleisis is highly effective with low morbidity for correcting apical prolapse in such women. Colpocleisis does not appear to alter body image and regret after the procedure is uncommon (less than 10 percent). Therefore, an obliterative operation is an option for women who are not candidates for more extensive surgery or are willing to accept the loss of vaginal intercourse.
Obliterative procedures for POP are discussed in detail separately. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Obliterative procedures (colpocleisis)".)
CONCOMITANT HYSTERECTOMY — Hysterectomy is often performed at the time of POP repair. This practice is dependent upon the surgical technique used for pelvic reconstruction and other potential benefits. On the other hand, there is concern that concomitant hysterectomy may increase the risk of some perioperative complications (eg, mesh erosion) and, additionally, an increasing number of women wish to conserve their uterus as an important component of their body image.
During POP repair, surgeons have generally performed hysterectomy rather than uterine-sparing procedures based upon several assertions:
●Apical prolapse is often present in women with symptomatic prolapse, and the most commonly performed techniques for apical prolapse repair require hysterectomy. In abdominal sacral colpopexy and transvaginal sacrospinous ligament suspension, hysterectomy is required because the apex is elevated by affixing the vaginal cuff to a support structure (eg, the sacrospinous ligament or the anterior longitudinal ligament of the sacrum).
●The common wisdom has been that retaining the uterus increases the risk of recurrent prolapse, although there are no data to support this. The role of hysterectomy at the time of surgery for POP is currently debatable and there are no data supporting hysterectomy at the time of surgery for POP. There are three underpowered studies that describe uterine preservation at the time of surgery for POP and uterine preservation did not affect the risk of POP recurrence [21-23].
●Hysterectomy eliminates current or future cervical or intrauterine pathology. However, such benefits are less relevant with current advances in minimally invasive treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding and in cervical cancer screening. Uterine cancer typically presents at an early stage with uterine bleeding, and thus, preventive measures are not routinely recommended for average risk women.
In a retrospective analysis of pathology findings at reconstructive pelvic surgery with hysterectomy, over a 3.5-year period, 17 of 644 patients (2.6 percent) had unanticipated premalignant or malignant uterine pathology. Two (0.3 percent) had endometrial carcinoma. All cases of unanticipated disease were identified in postmenopausal women .
Potential disadvantages of hysterectomy and the associated pelvic floor dissection are an increased risk of pelvic neuropathy and disruption of natural support structures such as the uterosacral cardinal ligament complex .
Uterine sparing procedures correct apical prolapse by attaching the lower uterus or cervix to a support structure. These techniques are not widely used, since they have not been well evaluated and most surgeons have not been trained to perform them.
Advantages of uterine sparing techniques are a shorter operative duration and less blood loss; however, their efficacy is controversial [21,22,26-29]. Two randomized trials in women with stage II or higher POP that compared transvaginal sacrospinous hysteropexy with vaginal hysterectomy (with uterosacral or sacrospinous ligament suspension of the vaginal vault) yielded consistent results: the rate of prolapse recurrence after 9 to 12 months was higher in women who underwent hysteropexy in both trials, but reached statistical significance in one trial (27 versus 3 percent ) and not the other (25 versus 13 percent ). Operative duration (59 versus 120 minutes in one trial ) and blood loss (20 versus 120 mL in one trial ) were decreased for sacrospinous hysteropexy compared with vaginal hysterectomy; complication rates were similar for the two groups. Further study is needed to evaluate the efficacy of uterine sparing techniques.
A proposed advantage of uterine sparing surgery is a decreased impact on sexual function; however, this benefit is uncertain. The only study of this issue found no difference in effect on sexual function in women who underwent sacrospinous hysteropexy compared with vaginal hysterectomy . Also, studies of hysterectomy for POP and other indications have generally found no impact on sexual function. (See "Choosing a route of hysterectomy for benign disease", section on 'Pelvic organ prolapse'.)
Uterine-sparing techniques offer the potential for preserving fertility. There are few data, however, regarding the risk of intrapartum complication and postpartum recurrence of prolapse following these procedures [22,31].
While uterine sparing techniques may offer benefits of decreased operative duration and blood loss, their efficacy and decreased risk remains unproven. Given the current data, for women undergoing apical prolapse repair, we suggest performing concomitant hysterectomy rather than uterine preservation. A uterine sparing procedure performed by a surgeon familiar with the necessary techniques is a reasonable alternative for women who strongly prefer to preserve their uterus and are aware of the potential risk of recurrent prolapse requiring need for future hysterectomy and the uncertainty regarding the impact of future pregnancy on the durability of the repair.
CONCOMITANT REPAIR OF APICAL AND ANTERIOR OR POSTERIOR PROLAPSE — Reconstructive surgery for POP often involves repair of multiple anatomic sites of prolapse (apical, anterior, and/or posterior). Repair of each prolapse site and how to best perform a combined reconstruction must be considered when choosing an overall surgical approach. The common teaching is that all procedures should be performed using one route (vaginal or abdominal), since it is generally preferred to avoid both abdominal and vaginal incisions. In some instances, however, surgeons may combine the two surgical approaches.
Choice of surgical route is mainly of concern in women who require repair of apical prolapse, since isolated repair of anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse is typically performed transvaginally (posterior prolapse can also be repaired endoanally). Repair of apical prolapse abdominally with sacral colpopexy results in a lower rate of recurrence, while transvaginal repair (eg, sacrospinous ligament fixation, uterosacral ligament fixation) has a shorter recovery and less morbidity. The choice of surgical technique for specific anatomic sites of prolapse is discussed separately. (See "Surgical management of posterior vaginal defects", section on 'Surgical approaches' and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of apical prolapse (uterine or vaginal vault prolapse)", section on 'Abdominal versus vaginal approach' and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse".).
Patients with apical prolapse have a high rate of anterior prolapse and a lower rate of posterior prolapse . It is controversial whether repair of apical prolapse is sufficient to support the anterior and posterior vaginal walls or if additional procedures are required to address anterior and/or posterior prolapse. If the vaginal muscularis is well suspended at the apex, many anterior defects (55 percent in one study)  and some posterior defects will resolve. On the other hand, correction of anterior or posterior prolapse does not repair apical descent. The approach to concomitant repair of multiple sites of prolapse varies by surgical route and by site of prolapse.
Repair of anterior or posterior prolapse alone appears to have a higher failure rate than when these procedures are combined with apical prolapse repair. This was illustrated in United States national study of 2756 women and found the following 10-year reoperation rates: anterior repair versus combined anterior and apical repair (20.2 versus 11.6 percent); anterior and posterior repair versus combined anterior, posterior, and apical repair (14.7 versus 10.2 percent); and posterior repair versus combined posterior and apical repair (14.6 versus 12.9 percent) . Hysterectomy for prolapse and the omission of appropriate prolapse repairs are risk factors for reoperation of prolapse [35,36]. The incidence of reoperation within 10 years of surgery is 7.4 percent when vaginal hysterectomy is done alone for prolapse and just 2 percent when concomitant pelvic floor repairs are undertaken at the time of hysterectomy . The long-recognized importance of apical vaginal support has also been quantified in biomechanical studies. Support of the vaginal apex eliminates anterior vaginal wall laxity in 63 percent of women with stage 3 or 4 apical prolapse  and these analyses reveal that >70 percent of anterior wall prolapse is accounted for by loss of uterine or apical vaginal prolapse [37,38].
Abdominal route — The abdominal route has been used for the repair of both anterior and posterior prolapse.
Anterior prolapse — Among women undergoing sacral colpopexy who also have symptomatic anterior prolapse, anterior vaginal wall support can be achieved transabdominally either by sacral colpopexy alone or by a combined procedure with paravaginal repair. Data are limited on the efficacy and comparative efficacy of these procedures:
●A systematic review of 62 studies of sacral colpopexy found few data regarding the efficacy of sacral colpopexy alone for anterior prolapse .
●A literature review of five observational studies reported that combined sacral colpopexy and paravaginal repair successfully treated anterior prolapse in 76 to 97 percent of women .
●The only comparative study was a retrospective cohort study of 170 women in which a conclusion could not be reached since only six patients required reoperation for anterior prolapse recurrence .
Unfortunately, inter- and intra-examiner reliability of the clinical examination for central, superior, and right and left paravaginal defects is poor . Since it is difficult for examiners to agree on whether a paravaginal defect is present, in our practice, we do not routinely perform paravaginal defect repairs for anterior wall support and feel that a good apical suspension obviates the need for a separate repair of the anterior wall. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Diagnostic evaluation", section on 'Inspection for paravaginal defects'.)
Posterior prolapse — Repair of posterior vaginal wall prolapse at the time of abdominal surgery can be performed in one of three ways:
●Modifying the sacral colpopexy to extend the posterior mesh down the rectovaginal septum. Some data suggest that extending the mesh to the perineal body using a combined abdominal and vaginal approach (sometimes referred to as sacrocolpoperineopexy) increases the risk of mesh erosion .
●Posterior colporrhaphy, which is a vaginal procedure.
●Endoanal or endorectal posterior repair; however, the transvaginal approach appears to be superior to these approaches. (See "Surgical management of posterior vaginal defects", section on 'Vaginal versus transanal approach'.)
In the Colpopexy and Urinary Reduction Efforts (CARE) trial, which evaluated the role of Burch colposuspension in women undergoing sacral colpopexy, 87 of 298 women (29 percent) underwent posterior vaginal wall repair in which colporrhaphy, perineorrhaphy, or sacrocolpoperineopexy was used according to surgeon discretion . Women who did or did not undergo posterior repair had a similar rate of improvement in bowel symptoms, including obstructive symptoms (constipation, incomplete emptying and of pain and/or irritation with defecation); posterior anatomic outcomes were also similar for the two groups.
Observational studies of sacral colpopexy with posterior mesh extension, but without posterior colporrhaphy, have had widely variable results. In two prospective studies, the rate of recurrence of posterior prolapse varied from 8 percent at one year  to 57 percent at two years .
The decision to perform a posterior colporrhaphy is dependent upon whether the patient has patient’s posterior prolapse-related and/or defecatory symptoms and the degree of prolapse of the posterior wall. In our practice, in patients with posterior wall prolapse, we extend the mesh down the posterior vaginal wall to the lower half of the vagina. When symptoms are bothersome and/or the prolapse of the posterior wall extends to or beyond the hymen, we generally perform a posterior colporrhaphy.
Vaginal route — In women undergoing a transvaginal apical suspension, the optimal management of separately addressing anterior and posterior wall prolapse is unclear. Many surgeons perform a simultaneous anterior or posterior colporrhaphy, while others think that an effective vaginal apical suspension obviates for a separate anterior or posterior procedure.
High rates of anterior wall prolapse have been reported for sacrospinous ligament suspension or uterosacral ligament suspension in combination with anterior colporrhaphy (29 percent), and even higher for anterior colporrhaphy alone (30 to 40 percent) . However, most of these studies used a definition of failure defined as recurrence of stage II or higher; new evidence suggests that this definition is too strict and has been based on expert opinion only and not data. Current evidence supports a definition of success as a patient’s perception of bother, which typically corresponds to prolapse beyond the hymen . Using this definition, most studies investigating the efficacy of anterior colporrhaphy show high success rates and low reoperation rates. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of apical prolapse (uterine or vaginal vault prolapse)", section on 'Outcome' and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of apical prolapse (uterine or vaginal vault prolapse)", section on 'Outcome' and "Pelvic organ prolapse in women: Surgical repair of anterior vaginal wall prolapse".)
In our practice, when apical prolapse, as well as stage II anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse, are present during the preoperative examination, we perform an anterior or posterior colporrhaphy in addition to a transvaginal apical suspension.
CONCOMITANT INCONTINENCE SURGERY
Urinary incontinence — Symptomatic POP often coexists with SUI. Women with symptoms of both POP and SUI are treated with a combined prolapse repair and continence procedure.
Another important patient population consists of women with stage II or higher apical prolapse who remain continent despite loss of anterior vaginal and bladder/urethral support. Unfortunately, 13 to 65 percent of continent women develop symptoms of SUI after surgical correction of prolapse. This likely occurs because the prolapse kinks and obstructs the urethra; this obstruction is alleviated when the prolapse is repaired. This is referred to as "occult" or "potential" stress incontinence.
All women with apical prolapse should have a preoperative evaluation for occult SUI with clinical or urodynamic urinary stress testing with and without reduction of prolapse. However, preoperative prolapse reduction testing does not accurately predict postoperative stress incontinence (approximately 40 percent of women with negative testing will develop postoperative stress incontinence).
A prediction model exists for calculating a woman's individual risk of postoperative SUI after surgery for prolapse in women who do not have SUI before surgery . The calculator can inform the patient and surgeon's decision regarding performance of a concomitant continence procedure at the time of prolapse surgery (figure 1) .
For women with stage II or greater POP who are undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy, regardless of the results of preoperative testing for occult SUI, high quality data support a concomitant Burch colposuspension rather than sacrocolpopexy alone. Similarly, for women with stage II or greater POP who are undergoing vaginal vault suspension, regardless of the results of preoperative testing for occult SUI, a concomitant midurethral sling rather than vaginal vault suspension alone significantly decreases the risk of postoperative SUI, but is accompanied by an increase in postoperative complications . Concomitant surgery for POP and SUI is discussed in detail separately. (See "Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence in women: Combined surgical treatment", section on 'POP with no symptoms of SUI'.)
Anal incontinence — Repair of POP may improve symptoms in women who have bothersome symptoms of both POP and anal incontinence. When POP is the patient's primary complaint, some surgeons choose to repair POP prior to recommending surgery for anal incontinence.
Data are mixed regarding the impact of POP repair, specifically rectocele repair, on anal incontinence [51-54]. A prospective study of 101 women undergoing rectocele repair reported that 63 percent who had anal incontinence preoperatively reported resolution or improvement in these symptoms at one year after surgery . In contrast, in a retrospective series of 231 women who underwent posterior colporrhaphy, the prevalence of fecal incontinence increased postoperatively from 4 to 11 percent, and 19 percent of patients developed incontinence of flatus . Further study is needed to evaluate this issue.
Anal incontinence is discussed in detail separately. (See "Fecal incontinence in adults: Etiology and evaluation".)
MESH AUGMENTATION — Surgical mesh use is standard in abdominal sacral colpopexy. The use of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP repair has been introduced with the goal of reducing the risk of recurrent prolapse, but this approach is controversial. At present, potentially higher success rates resulting from the use of some mesh products for the anterior, and possibly the apex, of the vagina are accompanied by a higher complication rate than traditional vaginal surgery.
Use of surgical mesh in pelvic reconstructive surgery is discussed in detail separately. (See "Overview of transvaginal placement of mesh for prolapse and stress urinary incontinence".)
INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials, “The Basics” and “Beyond the Basics.” The Basics patient education pieces are written in plain language, at the 5th to 6th grade reading level, and they answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are written at the 10th to 12th grade reading level and are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.
Here are the patient education articles that are relevant to this topic. We encourage you to print or e-mail these topics to your patients. (You can also locate patient education articles on a variety of subjects by searching on “patient info” and the keyword(s) of interest.)
●Basics topics (see "Patient education: Pelvic organ prolapse (The Basics)")
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
●Surgical candidates for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) repair are women with symptomatic prolapse who decline or fail conservative therapy (eg, vaginal pessaries). (See 'Candidates for surgical treatment' above.)
●There is no indication for repair of asymptomatic POP as an isolated procedure. We also suggest NOT performing prolapse repair for most asymptomatic women who are undergoing other pelvic floor procedures (eg, stress urinary incontinence [SUI] surgery) (Grade 2C). Prolapse repair at the time of other pelvic surgery is a reasonable option in women with advanced prolapse or women with risk factors for developing prolapse progression (eg, concomitant hysterectomy, premenopausal status, obesity).
●Women who are elderly, unable to tolerate extensive surgery, and do not plan future vaginal intercourse are candidates for obliterative POP surgery. (See 'Reconstructive versus obliterative procedures' above.)
●For women undergoing apical prolapse repair, we suggest performing concomitant hysterectomy rather than uterine preservation (Grade 2B). A uterine sparing procedure performed by a surgeon familiar with the necessary techniques is a reasonable alternative for women who strongly prefer to preserve their uterus and are aware of the potential risk of recurrent prolapse and the uncertainty regarding obstetric outcomes. (See 'Concomitant hysterectomy' above.)
●For women who are undergoing an abdominal apical suspension procedure who require repair of anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall prolapse (see 'Abdominal route' above):
•For women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse, we suggest apical suspension alone rather than combined with abdominal paravaginal repair (Grade 2C).
•For most women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse, we suggest extending the vaginal mesh from the apical suspension down the posterior vaginal wall to the lower half of the vagina (Grade 2C). When symptoms are bothersome and/or the prolapse of the posterior wall extends to or beyond the hymen, we suggest performing a posterior colporrhaphy (Grade 2C).
●For women who are undergoing a transvaginal apical suspension procedure who require repair of anterior and/or posterior vaginal wall prolapse, we suggest concomitant anterior and/or posterior colporrhaphy (Grade 2C). (See 'Vaginal route' above.)
●POP often coexists with SUI. Some women with advanced POP remain continent despite loss of anterior vaginal and bladder/urethral support. These women may develop symptoms of SUI after surgical correction of the prolapse. (See 'Urinary incontinence' above.)
●All women planning repair of apical prolapse should have a preoperative evaluation for SUI with clinical or urodynamic urinary stress testing with and without reduction of prolapse. However, preoperative prolapse reduction testing does not accurately predict postoperative stress incontinence (approximately 40 percent of women with negative testing will develop postoperative SUI). This testing may impact surgical decision making, particularly for women undergoing transvaginal apical prolapse repair. (See 'Urinary incontinence' above.)
●Women with symptomatic apical POP and no SUI symptoms may have occult SUI and may benefit from a prophylactic continence procedure at the time of POP repair. A patient's individual risk can be calculated using a de novo SUI risk calculator. (See 'Urinary incontinence' above and "Pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence in women: Combined surgical treatment", section on 'POP with no symptoms of SUI'.)
●Use of surgical mesh for transvaginal POP repair has potentially higher anatomic success rates than repair without mesh, but also appears to result in similar subjective success rates and a higher complication rate than traditional vaginal surgery. (See 'Mesh augmentation' above.)
- Jones KA, Shepherd JP, Oliphant SS, et al. Trends in inpatient prolapse procedures in the United States, 1979-2006. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202:501.e1.
- Boyles SH, Weber AM, Meyn L. Procedures for pelvic organ prolapse in the United States, 1979-1997. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188:108.
- Olsen AL, Smith VJ, Bergstrom JO, et al. Epidemiology of surgically managed pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:501.
- Asante A, Whiteman MK, Kulkarni A, et al. Elective oophorectomy in the United States: trends and in-hospital complications, 1998-2006. Obstet Gynecol 2010; 116:1088.
- Ellerkmann RM, Cundiff GW, Melick CF, et al. Correlation of symptoms with location and severity of pelvic organ prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185:1332.
- Gutman RE, Ford DE, Quiroz LH, et al. Is there a pelvic organ prolapse threshold that predicts pelvic floor symptoms? Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199:683.e1.
- Swift S, Woodman P, O'Boyle A, et al. Pelvic Organ Support Study (POSST): the distribution, clinical definition, and epidemiologic condition of pelvic organ support defects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192:795.
- Mouritsen L, Larsen JP. Symptoms, bother and POPQ in women referred with pelvic organ prolapse. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2003; 14:122.
- Bradley CS, Zimmerman MB, Qi Y, Nygaard IE. Natural history of pelvic organ prolapse in postmenopausal women. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 109:848.
- Handa VL, Garrett E, Hendrix S, et al. Progression and remission of pelvic organ prolapse: a longitudinal study of menopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 190:27.
- Dietz HP. Prolapse worsens with age, doesn't it? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2008; 48:587.
- Kudish BI, Iglesia CB, Sokol RJ, et al. Effect of weight change on natural history of pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113:81.
- Dällenbach P, Kaelin-Gambirasio I, Dubuisson JB, Boulvain M. Risk factors for pelvic organ prolapse repair after hysterectomy. Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110:625.
- Diez-Itza I, Aizpitarte I, Becerro A. Risk factors for the recurrence of pelvic organ prolapse after vaginal surgery: a review at 5 years after surgery. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2007; 18:1317.
- Nieminen K, Huhtala H, Heinonen PK. Anatomic and functional assessment and risk factors of recurrent prolapse after vaginal sacrospinous fixation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2003; 82:471.
- Whiteside JL, Weber AM, Meyn LA, Walters MD. Risk factors for prolapse recurrence after vaginal repair. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:1533.
- Stepp KJ, Barber MD, Yoo EH, et al. Incidence of perioperative complications of urogynecologic surgery in elderly women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005; 192:1630.
- Bradley CS, Kenton KS, Richter HE, et al. Obesity and outcomes after sacrocolpopexy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 199:690.e1.
- Diwadkar GB, Barber MD, Feiner B, et al. Complication and reoperation rates after apical vaginal prolapse surgical repair: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 113:367.
- Denehy TR, Choe JY, Gregori CA, Breen JL. Modified Le Fort partial colpocleisis with Kelly urethral plication and posterior colpoperineoplasty in the medically compromised elderly: a comparison with vaginal hysterectomy, anterior colporrhaphy, and posterior colpoperineoplasty. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173:1697.
- Hefni M, El-Toukhy T, Bhaumik J, Katsimanis E. Sacrospinous cervicocolpopexy with uterine conservation for uterovaginal prolapse in elderly women: an evolving concept. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003; 188:645.
- Maher CF, Cary MP, Slack MC, et al. Uterine preservation or hysterectomy at sacrospinous colpopexy for uterovaginal prolapse? Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2001; 12:381.
- van Brummen HJ, van de Pol G, Aalders CI, et al. Sacrospinous hysteropexy compared to vaginal hysterectomy as primary surgical treatment for a descensus uteri: effects on urinary symptoms. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2003; 14:350.
- Frick AC, Walters MD, Larkin KS, Barber MD. Risk of unanticipated abnormal gynecologic pathology at the time of hysterectomy for uterovaginal prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202:507.e1.
- Nesbitt RE Jr. Uterine preservation in the surgical management of genuine stress urinary incontinence associated with uterovaginal prolapse. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1989; 168:143.
- Diwan A, Rardin CR, Kohli N. Uterine preservation during surgery for uterovaginal prolapse: a review. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2004; 15:286.
- Carramão S, Auge AP, Pacetta AM, et al. [A randomized comparison of two vaginal procedures for the treatment of uterine prolapse using polypropylene mesh: hysteropexy versus hysterectomy]. Rev Col Bras Cir 2009; 36:65.
- Dietz V, van der Vaart CH, van der Graaf Y, et al. One-year follow-up after sacrospinous hysteropexy and vaginal hysterectomy for uterine descent: a randomized study. Int Urogynecol J 2010; 21:209.
- Roovers JP, van der Vaart CH, van der Bom JG, et al. A randomised controlled trial comparing abdominal and vaginal prolapse surgery: effects on urogenital function. BJOG 2004; 111:50.
- Jeng CJ, Yang YC, Tzeng CR, et al. Sexual functioning after vaginal hysterectomy or transvaginal sacrospinous uterine suspension for uterine prolapse: a comparison. J Reprod Med 2005; 50:669.
- Kovac SR, Cruikshank SH. Successful pregnancies and vaginal deliveries after sacrospinous uterosacral fixation in five of nineteen patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168:1778.
- Rooney K, Kenton K, Mueller ER, et al. Advanced anterior vaginal wall prolapse is highly correlated with apical prolapse. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 195:1837.
- Lowder JL, Park AJ, Ellison R, et al. The role of apical vaginal support in the appearance of anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 2008; 111:152.
- Eilber KS, Alperin M, Khan A, et al. Outcomes of vaginal prolapse surgery among female Medicare beneficiaries: the role of apical support. Obstet Gynecol 2013; 122:981.
- Blandon RE, Bharucha AE, Melton LJ 3rd, et al. Incidence of pelvic floor repair after hysterectomy: A population-based cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197:664.e1.
- Altman D, Falconer C, Cnattingius S, Granath F. Pelvic organ prolapse surgery following hysterectomy on benign indications. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198:572.e1.
- Summers A, Winkel LA, Hussain HK, DeLancey JO. The relationship between anterior and apical compartment support. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194:1438.
- Hsu Y, Chen L, Summers A, et al. Anterior vaginal wall length and degree of anterior compartment prolapse seen on dynamic MRI. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2008; 19:137.
- Nygaard IE, McCreery R, Brubaker L, et al. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy: a comprehensive review. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104:805.
- Maher C, Baessler K. Surgical management of anterior vaginal wall prolapse: an evidencebased literature review. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2006; 17:195.
- Shippey SH, Quiroz LH, Sanses TV, et al. Anatomic outcomes of abdominal sacrocolpopexy with or without paravaginal repair. Int Urogynecol J 2010; 21:279.
- Whiteside JL, Barber MD, Paraiso MF, et al. Clinical evaluation of anterior vaginal wall support defects: interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004; 191:100.
- Visco AG, Weidner AC, Barber MD, et al. Vaginal mesh erosion after abdominal sacral colpopexy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 184:297.
- Bradley CS, Nygaard IE, Brown MB, et al. Bowel symptoms in women 1 year after sacrocolpopexy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197:642.e1.
- Guiahi M, Kenton K, Brubaker L. Sacrocolpopexy without concomitant posterior repair improves posterior compartment defects. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2008; 19:1267.
- Baessler K, Schuessler B. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy and anatomy and function of the posterior compartment. Obstet Gynecol 2001; 97:678.
- Weber AM, Walters MD, Piedmonte MR, Ballard LA. Anterior colporrhaphy: a randomized trial of three surgical techniques. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185:1299.
- Barber MD, Brubaker L, Nygaard I, et al. Defining success after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Obstet Gynecol 2009; 114:600.
- Jelovsek JE, Chagin K, Brubaker L, et al. A model for predicting the risk of de novo stress urinary incontinence in women undergoing pelvic organ prolapse surgery. Obstet Gynecol 2014; 123:279.
- Wei JT, Nygaard I, Richter HE, et al. A midurethral sling to reduce incontinence after vaginal prolapse repair. N Engl J Med 2012; 366:2358.
- Gustilo-Ashby AM, Paraiso MF, Jelovsek JE, et al. Bowel symptoms 1 year after surgery for prolapse: further analysis of a randomized trial of rectocele repair. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197:76.e1.
- Kahn MA, Stanton SL. Posterior colporrhaphy: its effects on bowel and sexual function. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104:82.
- Hefni M, El-Toukhy T, Bhaumik J. Vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy and perineorrhaphy for faecal incontinence: preliminary report. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003; 110:211.
- Heriot AG, Skull A, Kumar D. Functional and physiological outcome following transanal repair of rectocele. Br J Surg 2004; 91:1340.