Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for selected patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) . A successful kidney transplant improves the quality of life and reduces the mortality risk for most patients when compared with maintenance dialysis [2-4]. Survival rates posttransplantation are similar for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients .
The widely perceived success of transplantation must be tempered by the realization that organ demand far exceeds organ supply [6,7]. In addition, despite significant improvements in one-year graft survival, the rate of chronic graft loss after the first year remains substantial.
The following discussion will review the data relating to patient survival in patients undergoing renal transplantation. The determinants of short-term and long-term graft survival are discussed separately. (See "Risk factors for graft failure in kidney transplantation".)
ESTIMATED POSTTRANSPLANT SURVIVAL (EPTS)
When a candidate is offered a kidney for transplant, available information about the candidate at the time of the organ offer will be used by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) to determine the candidate’s estimated posttransplant survival (EPTS). The calculation for EPTS is based on four factors: