Hoffmann JN, Werdan K, Hartl WH, Jochum M, Faist E, Inthorn D
Myocardial dysfunction due to sepsis is common in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is believed to be produced by inflammatory mediators. Some of these mediators may be eliminated by continuous hemofiltration, which is a standard procedure in an ICU for renal replacement therapy. This study was designed to directly compare the effects of ultrafiltrates from patients with sepsis (UFs) with ultrafiltrates from healthy volunteers (UFh) in well-characterized cardiomyocyte culture systems. Isovolemic hemofiltration (filtration rate: 2 L/h, polyamide membrane) was performed during 12 hours in 5 patients with severe sepsis (Elebute Score>20) and simultaneously reduced left ventricular contractility (left ventricular stroke work index [LVSWI]<30 g m/m2) and in 5 healthy volunteers. Inflammatory mediator concentrations (interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]alpha, C3a, and C5a) were measured in plasma and ultrafiltrate samples taken shortly after the beginning of the hemofiltration procedure. Cell culture experiments were done comparing UFs with UFh by using spontaneously beating or electrically driven neonatal rat cardiomyocyte cultures. UFs contained significantly higher amounts of IL-1, IL-8, and C3a when compared to UFh. Simultaneously, UFs induced a decrease in the contraction frequency of electrically-stimulated cardiomyocytes, whereas UFh had no effect. The cardiotoxic effect could be reversed by the addition of a high concentration (2.4 mM) of Ca++. Hemofiltration did not alter parameters of cardiac performance during 12 hours in patients with sepsis. UFs induced significant cardiotoxic effects in rat cardiomyocytes, whereas UFh showed no cardiotoxicity. Contact of blood with the hemofiltration membrane did not induce activation of cardiotoxic mediators. Significantly higher filtration rates may be required to improve left ventricular contractility in patients with sepsis by hemofiltration.
Department of Surgery, Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany.