Liu D, Cai S, Gu X, Scafidi J, Wu X, Davis AE 3rd
C1 inhibitor (C1INH) is beneficial in animal models of endotoxemia and sepsis. However, the mechanism(s) of C1INH protection remain(s) ill-defined. In this study, we demonstrated that both active C1INH and reactive center-cleaved, inactive C1INH protected mice from lethal Gram-negative endotoxemia. Both forms of C1INH blocked the LPS-binding protein-dependent binding of Salmonella typhimurium LPS to the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, and suppressed LPS-induced TNF-alpha mRNA expression. Inhibition of LPS binding to RAW 264.7 cells was reversed with anti-C1INH Ab and was more efficient when C1INH was incubated first with LPS rather than with the cells. C1INH also suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of TNF-alpha mRNA in whole human blood. The interaction of C1INH with LPS was directly demonstrated both by ELISA and by nondenaturing PAGE, but deletion of the amino-terminal 97-aa residues abrogated this binding. Therefore, C1INH, in addition to its function as a serine protease inhibitor, has a novel anti-inflammatory function mediated via its heavily glycosylated amino-terminal non-serpin domain.
Center for Blood Research, Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 800 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.