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Pathophysiology, clinical features, and diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot

Thomas Doyle, MD
Ann Kavanaugh-McHugh, MD
Section Editors
Heidi M Connolly, MD, FASE
John K Triedman, MD
Deputy Editor
Carrie Armsby, MD, MPH


In 1888, Etienne-Louis Arthur Fallot described three cyanotic patients with four similar anatomic features (figure 1) [1]:

Stenosis of the pulmonary artery

Intraventricular communication

Deviation of the origin of the aorta to the right

Concentric right ventricular hypertrophy


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Literature review current through: Sep 2016. | This topic last updated: May 6, 2015.
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