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Medline ® Abstract for Reference 27

of 'Pathophysiology and prediction of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting'

27
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Proposal for classifying the acute emetogenicity of cancer chemotherapy.
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Hesketh PJ, Kris MG, Grunberg SM, Beck T, Hainsworth JD, Harker G, Aapro MS, Gandara D, Lindley CM
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J Clin Oncol. 1997;15(1):103.
 
PURPOSE: To propose a classification of the acute emetogenicity of antineoplastic chemotherapy agents, and to develop an algorithm to define the emetogenicity of combination chemotherapy regimens.
METHODS: A Medline search was conducted to identify (1) clinical trials that used chemotherapy as single-agent therapy, and (2) major reviews of antiemetic therapy. The search was limited to patients who received commonly used doses of chemotherapy agents, primarily by short (<3 hours) intravenous infusions. Based on review of this information and our collective clinical experience, we assigned chemotherapy agents to one of five emetogenic levels by consensus. A preliminary algorithm to determine the emetogenicity of combination chemotherapy regimens was then designed by consensus. A final algorithm was developed after we analyzed a data base composed of patients treated on the placebo arms of four randomized antiemetic trials.
RESULTS: Chemotherapy agents were divided into five levels: level 1 (<10% of patients experience acute [<or = 24 hours after chemotherapy]emesis without antiemetic prophylaxis); level 2 (10% to 30%);level 3 (30% to 60%); level 4 (60% to 90%); and level 5 (>90%). For combinations, the emetogenic level was determined by identifying the most emetogenic agent in the combination and then assessing the relative contribution of the other agents. The following rules apply: (1) level 1 agents do not contribute to the emetogenic level of a combination; (2) adding>or = one level 2 agent increases the emetogenicity of the combination by one level greater than the most emetogenic agent in the combination; and (3) adding level 3 or 4 agents increases the emetogenicity of the combination by one level per agent.
CONCLUSION: The proposed classification schema provides a practical means to determine the emetogenic potential of individual chemotherapy agents and combination regimens during the 24 hours after administration. This system can serve as a framework for the development of antiemetic guidelines.
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St Elizabeth's Medical Center, Boston, MA 02135, USA. PhesKeth@aol.com
PMID