Substantial gaps remain in the basic understanding of the pathogenesis of dengue disease. In large part, this limitation is related to the lack of a suitable animal model . Rhesus monkeys develop viremia similar in pattern to humans after dengue virus challenge but do not develop clinical disease. Careful epidemiologic and experimental challenge studies in humans have provided valuable information on dengue virus infection, but detailed data on virus distribution in vivo are available only from small numbers of patients with more severe disease, unusual manifestations, or the later stages of infection. Little pathogenetic information is available concerning milder infections, which constitute the vast majority of cases.
THE DENGUE VIRAL REPLICATION CYCLE
Dengue viruses are members of the family Flaviviridae genus Flavivirus. They are small enveloped viruses containing a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity . Dengue viruses infect a wide range of human and nonhuman cell types in vitro. Viral replication involves the following steps:
●Attachment to the cell surface
●Entry into the cytoplasm
●Translation of viral proteins