Pathogenesis and clinical features of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
- Eric C Eichenwald, MD
Eric C Eichenwald, MD
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
- Ann R Stark, MD
Ann R Stark, MD
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Vanderbilt University School of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Gregory Redding, MD
Gregory Redding, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Pulmonology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- University of Washington School of Medicine
- Richard Martin, MD
Richard Martin, MD
- Section Editor — Neonatology
- Professor, Pediatrics, Reproductive Biology, and Physiology & Biophysics
- Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as neonatal chronic lung disease (CLD), is an important cause of respiratory illness in preterm newborns that results in significant morbidity and mortality.
The pathogenesis and clinical features of BPD are reviewed here. Management, prognosis, and potential strategies to prevent BPD are discussed separately. (See "Management of bronchopulmonary dysplasia" and "Outcome of infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia" and "Prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia".)
Different degrees of prematurity are defined by gestational age (GA) and weight, which is calculated from the first day of the mother's last period, or birth weight (BW). Data on bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is often based upon the following classification of preterm infants who are categorized by their birth weight or GA as follows:
●Low birth weight (LBW) – BW less than 2500 g
●Very low birth weight (VLBW) – BW less than 1500 g
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- NICHD criteria
- - Physiologic testing
- - Higher altitudes
- Evolving definitions
- PATHOGENESIS AND RISK FACTORS
- Mechanical ventilation
- Oxygen toxicity
- - Postnatal
- - Chorioamnionitis
- Late surfactant deficiency
- Other potential factors
- - Impaired angiogenesis
- - Bombesin-like peptides
- CLINICAL FEATURES
- Physical examination
- Chest radiograph
- Cardiopulmonary function
- CLINICAL COURSE
- Pulmonary hypertension
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS