A substantial proportion of infants who depend upon parenteral nutrition because of intestinal failure develop cholestatic liver disease . The disorder is particularly common among infants with a history of prematurity and/or bowel resection (short bowel syndrome), and is a major cause of morbidity, liver transplantation, and death in these patients.
Parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) is less common and generally less severe among older children and adults, but may occur in those undergoing long-term treatment with parenteral nutrition. The pathogenesis, clinical features and management of PNALD are discussed in this topic review. Related discussions about the management of parenteral and enteral nutrition are discussed in separate topic reviews:
●(See "Parenteral nutrition in infants and children".)
●(See "Parenteral nutrition in premature infants".)
●(See "Enteral nutrition in infants and children".)