UpToDate
Official reprint from UpToDate®
www.uptodate.com ©2016 UpToDate®

Parathyroid cysts

Author
Ghada El-Hajj Fuleihan, MD, MPH
Section Editor
Clifford J Rosen, MD
Deputy Editor
Jean E Mulder, MD

INTRODUCTION

Primary hyperparathyroidism is usually caused by a parathyroid adenoma, occasionally by primary parathyroid hyperplasia, and rarely by a parathyroid cyst or parathyroid carcinoma. Parathyroid cysts are rare lesions of the neck or mediastinum, first described in 1880, with an estimated 300 cases reported in the literature since [1-6]. In a review of 6621 patients who had neck ultrasound investigations performed at a single center from 2003 to 2007 (mainly for evaluation of thyroid diseases), a parathyroid cyst was diagnosed in five cases [6]. Microcysts of the parathyroid gland are primarily found in aging glands, often incidentally noted on autopsy [2]. Generally, they have little clinical significance. Macrocysts of the parathyroid gland are larger than 1 cm, and these require clinical investigation.

This topic will provide an overview of parathyroid cysts. Other aspects of primary hyperparathyroidism are discussed elsewhere.

(See "Pathogenesis and etiology of primary hyperparathyroidism".)

(See "Primary hyperparathyroidism: Clinical manifestations".)

(See "Primary hyperparathyroidism: Diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and evaluation".)

          

Subscribers log in here

To continue reading this article, you must log in with your personal, hospital, or group practice subscription. For more information or to purchase a personal subscription, click below on the option that best describes you:
Literature review current through: Nov 2016. | This topic last updated: Wed Aug 31 00:00:00 GMT 2016.
The content on the UpToDate website is not intended nor recommended as a substitute for medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your own physician or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc.
References
Top
  1. Ippolito G, Palazzo FF, Sebag F, et al. A single-institution 25-year review of true parathyroid cysts. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2006; 391:13.
  2. Fortson JK, Patel VG, Henderson VJ. Parathyroid cysts: a case report and review of the literature. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:1726.
  3. Pontikides N, Karras S, Kaprara A, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutic review of cystic parathyroid lesions. Hormones (Athens) 2012; 11:410.
  4. Sung JY, Baek JH, Kim KS, et al. Symptomatic nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts: role of simple aspiration and ethanol ablation. Eur J Radiol 2013; 82:316.
  5. Khan A, Khan Y, Raza S, et al. Functional parathyroid cyst: a rare cause of malignant hypercalcemia with primary hyperparathyroidism-a case report and review of the literature. Case Rep Med 2012; 2012:851941.
  6. Cappelli C, Rotondi M, Pirola I, et al. Prevalence of parathyroid cysts by neck ultrasound scan in unselected patients. J Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32:357.
  7. Shields TW, Immerman SC. Mediastinal parathyroid cysts revisited. Ann Thorac Surg 1999; 67:581.
  8. Rossi ED, Revelli L, Giustozzi E, et al. Large non-functioning parathyroid cysts: our institutional experience of a rare entity and a possible pitfall in thyroid cytology. Cytopathology 2015; 26:114.
  9. Entwistle JW, Pierce CV, Johnson DE, et al. Parathyroid cysts: report of the sixth and youngest pediatric case. J Pediatr Surg 1994; 29:1528.
  10. Ihm PS, Dray T, Sofferman RA, et al. Parathyroid cysts: diagnosis and management. Laryngoscope 2001; 111:1576.
  11. Ing SW, Pelliteri PK. Diagnostic fine-needle aspiration biopsy of an intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and subsequent eucalcemia in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract 2008; 14:80.
  12. Hughes CR, Kanmaz B, Isitman AT, et al. Misleading imaging results in the diagnosis of parathyroid cysts. Clin Nucl Med 1994; 19:422.
  13. Zhang XU, Yuan JH, Feng LU, et al. Giant non-functional parathyroid cyst: A case report. Oncol Lett 2016; 11:2237.
  14. Calandra DB, Shah KH, Prinz RA, et al. Parathyroid cysts: a report of eleven cases including two associated with hyperparathyroid crisis. Surgery 1983; 94:887.
  15. McCoy KL, Yim JH, Zuckerbraun BS, et al. Cystic parathyroid lesions: functional and nonfunctional parathyroid cysts. Arch Surg 2009; 144:52.
  16. Gurbuz AT, Peetz ME. Giant mediastinal parathyroid cyst: an unusual cause of hypercalcemic crisis--case report and review of the literature. Surgery 1996; 120:795.
  17. Wani S, Hao Z. Atypical cystic adenoma of the parathyroid gland: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract 2005; 11:389.
  18. Oh A, Mojica P, Sullivan M, et al. Malignant hypercalcemia associated with a parathyroid macrocyst and the early genesis of a giant cell tumor. Am J Otolaryngol 2006; 27:54.
  19. Ujiki MB, Nayar R, Sturgeon C, Angelos P. Parathyroid cyst: often mistaken for a thyroid cyst. World J Surg 2007; 31:60.