Paranasal sinus cancer
- Kerstin M Stenson, MD, FACS
Kerstin M Stenson, MD, FACS
- Chief, Head and Neck Cancer Program, Rush University Medical Center
- Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery
- Daniel J Haraf, MD
Daniel J Haraf, MD
- University of Chicago
- Section Editors
- Bruce E Brockstein, MD
Bruce E Brockstein, MD
- Section Editor — Cancer of the Head and Neck
- Clinical Professor of Medicine
- University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
- David M Brizel, MD
David M Brizel, MD
- Section Editor — Radiation Therapy
- Leonard R Prosnitz Professor of Radiation Oncology
- Professor of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery
- Duke University Cancer Institute
- Marvin P Fried, MD, FACS
Marvin P Fried, MD, FACS
- Section Editor — Head and Neck Surgery
- Professor and University Chairman, Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
- Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
A range of malignancies can develop in the paranasal (maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal) sinuses (figure 1). Adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and ethmoid sinus are the most common of these tumors.
The epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of these tumors are discussed here. Tumors arising in the nasal cavity are discussed separately. (See "Cancer of the nasal vestibule" and "Tumors of the nasal cavity".)
EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
Cancers arising in the paranasal sinuses are rare, constituting approximately 3 percent of head and neck malignancies . The majority of these tumors arise in the maxillary sinuses, and most of the remainder start in the ethmoid sinuses. Cancers of the sphenoid and frontal sinuses are extremely rare. Paranasal sinus cancers are more frequent in males than females .
Factors associated with paranasal sinus cancers include [1,2]:
●Occupational exposures − Including leather, textile, wood dust, and formaldehyde.
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- EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
- CLINICAL PRESENTATION
- DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING
- Initial evaluation
- SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA AND ADENOCARCINOMA
- General approach to management
- - Ethmoid sinus
- - Maxillary sinus
- - Management of the orbit
- - Endoscopic resection
- - Reconstruction
- - Complications
- Radiation therapy
- - Contemporary RT techniques
- - Complications
- Management of the neck
- Recurrent and metastatic disease
- Posttreatment follow-up
- OTHER TUMOR TYPES
- Adenoid cystic carcinoma
- Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma
- Inverted papilloma
- Olfactory neuroblastoma
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS