Medline ® Abstract for Reference 51
of 'Palliative care: Issues in the intensive care unit in adults'
Patients' perceptions and responses to procedural pain: results from Thunder Project II.
Puntillo KA, White C, Morris AB, Perdue ST, Stanik-Hutt J, Thompson CL, Wild LR
Am J Crit Care. 2001 Jul;10(4):238-51.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the painfulness of procedures commonly performed in acute and critical care settings.
OBJECTIVE: To describe pain associated with turning, wound drain removal, tracheal suctioning, femoral catheter removal, placement of a central venous catheter, and nonburn wound dressing change and frequency of use of analgesics during procedures.
METHODS: A comparative, descriptive design was used. Numeric rating scales were used to measure pain intensity and procedural distress; word lists, to measure pain quality.
RESULTS: Data were obtained from 6201 patients: 176 younger than 18 years and 5957 adults. Mean pain intensity scores for turning and tracheal suctioning were 2.80 and 3.00, respectively (scale, 0-5), for 4- to 7-year-olds and 52.0 and 28.1 (scale, 0-100) for 8- to 12-year-olds. For adolescents, mean pain intensity scores for wound dressing change, turning, tracheal suctioning, and wound drain removal were 5 to 7 (scale, 0-10); mean procedural distress scores were 4.83 to 6.00 (scale, 0-10). In adults, mean pain intensity scores for all procedures were 2.65 to 4.93 (scale, 0-10); mean procedural distress scores were 1.89 to 3.47 (scale, 0-10). The most painful and distressing procedures were turning for adults and wound care for adolescents. Procedural pain was often described as sharp, stinging, stabbing, shooting, and awful. Less than 20% of patients received opiates before procedures.
CONCLUSIONS: Procedural pain varies considerably and is procedure specific. Because procedures are performed so often, more individualized attention to preparation for and control of procedural pain is warranted.
Critical Care/Trauma Graduate Nursing Program, University of California, San Francisco, Calif., USA.