Medline ® Abstracts for References 9-13
of 'Palliative care delivery in the home'
Increased satisfaction with care and lower costs: results of a randomized trial of in-home palliative care.
Brumley R, Enguidanos S, Jamison P, Seitz R, Morgenstern N, Saito S, McIlwane J, Hillary K, Gonzalez J
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007;55(7):993.
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether an in-home palliative care intervention for terminally ill patients can improve patient satisfaction, reduce medical care costs, and increase the proportion of patients dying at home.
DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial.
SETTING: Two health maintenance organizations in two states.
PARTICIPANTS: Homebound, terminally ill patients (N=298) with a prognosis of approximately 1 year or less to live plus one or more hospital or emergency department visits in the previous 12 months.
INTERVENTION: Usual versus in-home palliative care plus usual care delivered by an interdisciplinary team providing pain and symptom relief, patient and family education and training, and an array of medical and social support services.
MEASUREMENTS: Measured outcomes were satisfaction with care, use of medical services, site of death, and costs of care.
RESULTS: Patients randomized to in-home palliative care reported greater improvement in satisfaction with care at 30 and 90 days after enrollment (P<.05) and were more likely to die at home than those receiving usual care (P<.001). In addition, in-home palliative care subjects were less likely to visit the emergency department (P=.01) or be admitted to the hospital than those receiving usual care (P<.001), resulting in significantly lower costs of care for intervention patients (P=.03).
CONCLUSION: In-home palliative care significantly increased patient satisfaction while reducing use of medical services and costs of medical care at the end of life. This study, although modest in scope, presents strong evidence for reforming end-of-life care.
Kaiser Permanente Southern California Medical Group, Downey, California, USA.
Moving upstream: a review of the evidence of the impact of outpatient palliative care.
Rabow M, Kvale E, Barbour L, Cassel JB, Cohen S, Jackson V, Luhrs C, Nguyen V, Rinaldi S, Stevens D, Spragens L, Weissman D
J Palliat Med. 2013 Dec;16(12):1540-9. Epub 2013 Nov 13.
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence for the efficacy of inpatient palliative care in improving clinical care, patient and provider satisfaction, quality of life, and health care utilization. However, the evidence for the efficacy of nonhospice outpatient palliative care is less well known and has not been comprehensively reviewed.
OBJECTIVE: To review and assess the evidence of the impact of outpatient palliative care.
METHODS: Our study was a review of published, peer-reviewed outcomes research, including both observational studies and controlled trials of nonhospice outpatient palliative care services. We assessed patient, family caregiver, and clinician satisfaction; clinical outcomes including symptom management, quality of life, and mortality; and heath care utilization outcomes including readmission rates, hospice use, and cost.
RESULTS: Four well-designed randomized interventions as well as a growingbody of nonrandomized studies indicate that outpatient palliative care services can: 1) improve patient satisfaction, 2) improve symptom control and quality of life, 3) reduce health care utilization, and 4) lengthen survival in a population of lung cancer patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence supports the ongoing expansion of innovative outpatient palliative care service models throughout the care continuum to all patients with serious illness.
1 Department of Internal Medicine, University of California , San Francisco, California.
Effectiveness of palliative home-care services in reducing hospital admissions and determinants of hospitalization for terminally ill patients followed up by a palliative home-care team: a retrospective cohort study.
Riolfi M, Buja A, Zanardo C, Marangon CF, Manno P, Baldo V
Palliat Med. 2014 May;28(5):403-11. Epub 2013 Dec 23.
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that most patients in the terminal stages of cancer would benefit from palliative home-care services.
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of appropriate palliative home-care services in reducing hospital admissions, and to identify factors predicting the likelihood of patients treated at home being hospitalized.
DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study.
SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled all 402 patients listed by the Local Health Authority No. 5, Veneto Region (North-East Italy), as dying of cancer in 2011.
RESULTS: Of the cohort considered, 39.9% patients had been taken into care by a palliative home-care team. Irrespective of age, gender, and type of tumor, patients taken into care by the palliative home-care team were more likely to die at home, less likely to be hospitalized, and spent fewer days in hospital in the last 2 months of their life. Among the patients taken into care by the palliative home-care team, those with hematological cancers and hepatocellular carcinoma were more likely to be hospitalized, and certain symptoms (such as dyspnea and delirium) were predictive of hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the effectiveness of palliative home care in enabling patients to spend the final period of their lives at home. The services of a palliative home-care team reduced the consumption of hospital resources. This study also provided evidence of some types of cancer (e.g. hematological cancers and hepatocellular carcinoma) being more likely to require hospitalization, suggesting the need to reconsider the pathways of care for these diseases.
1Palliative Care Team, Distretto Socio Sanitario Azienda ULSS 5 Ovest Vicentino, Arzignano, Italy.
Health care outcomes and advance care planning in older adults who receive home-based palliative care: a pilot cohort study.
Chen CY, Thorsteinsdottir B, Cha SS, Hanson GJ, Peterson SM, Rahman PA, Naessens JM, Takahashi PY
J Palliat Med. 2015 Jan;18(1):38-44.
BACKGROUND: Approximately 20% of seniors live with five or more chronic medical illnesses. Terminal stages of their lives are often characterized by repeated burdensome hospitalizations and advance care directives are insufficiently addressed. This study reports on the preliminary results of a Palliative Care Homebound Program (PCHP) at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota to service these vulnerable populations.
OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to evaluate inpatient hospital utilization and the adequacy of advance care planning in patients who receive home-based palliative care.
METHODS: This is a retrospective pilot cohort study of patients enrolled in the PCHP between September 2012 and March 2013. Two control patients were matched to each intervention patient by propensity scoring methods that factor in risk and prognosis. Primary outcomes were six-month hospital utilization including ER visits. Secondary outcomes evaluated advance care directive completion and overall mortality.
RESULTS: Patients enrolled in the PCHP group (n = 54) were matched to 108 controls with an average age of 87 years. Ninety-two percent of controls and 33% of PCHP patients were admitted to the hospital at least once. The average number of hospital admissions was 1.36 per patient for controls versus 0.35 in the PCHP (p<0.001). Total hospital days were reduced by 5.13 days. There was no difference between rates of ER visits. Advanced care directive were completed more often in the intervention group (98%) as compared to controls (31%), with p<0.001. Goals of care discussions were held at least once for all patients in the PCHP group, compared to 41% in the controls.
1 Geriatric Medicine Fellowship, Mayo Clinic , Rochester, Minnesota.
Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of home palliative care services for adults with advanced illness and their caregivers.
Gomes B, Calanzani N, Curiale V, McCrone P, Higginson IJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;
BACKGROUND: Extensive evidence shows that well over 50% of people prefer to be cared for and to die at home provided circumstances allow choice. Despite best efforts and policies, one-third or less of all deaths take place at home in many countries of the world.
OBJECTIVES: 1. To quantify the effect of home palliative care services for adult patients with advanced illness and their family caregivers on patients' odds of dying at home; 2. to examine the clinical effectiveness of home palliative care services on other outcomes for patients and their caregivers such as symptom control, quality of life, caregiver distress and satisfaction with care; 3. to compare the resource use and costs associated with these services; 4. to critically appraise and summarise the current evidence on cost-effectiveness.
SEARCH METHODS: We searched 12 electronic databases up to November 2012. We checked the reference lists of all included studies, 49 relevant systematic reviews, four key textbooks and recent conference abstracts. We contacted 17 experts and researchers for unpublished data.
SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled clinical trials (CCTs), controlled before and after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) evaluating the impact of home palliative care services on outcomes for adults with advanced illness or their family caregivers, or both.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One review author assessed the identified titles and abstracts. Two independent reviewers performed assessment of all potentially relevant studies, data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. We carried out meta-analysis where appropriate and calculated numbers needed to treat to benefit (NNTBs) for the primary outcome (death at home).
MAIN RESULTS: We identified 23 studies (16 RCTs, 6 of high quality), including 37,561 participants and 4042 family caregivers, largely with advanced cancer but also congestive heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis (MS), among other conditions. Meta-analysis showed increased odds of dying at home (odds ratio (OR) 2.21, 95% CI 1.31 to 3.71; Z = 2.98, P value = 0.003; Chi(2) = 20.57, degrees of freedom (df) = 6, P value = 0.002; I(2) = 71%; NNTB 5, 95% CI 3 to 14 (seven trials with 1222 participants, three of high quality)). In addition, narrative synthesis showed evidence of small but statistically significant beneficial effects of home palliative care services compared to usual care on reducing symptom burden for patients (three trials, two of high quality, and one CBA with 2107 participants) and of no effect on caregiver grief (three RCTs, two of high quality, and one CBA with 2113 caregivers). Evidence on cost-effectiveness (six studies) is inconclusive.
AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results provide clear and reliable evidence that home palliative care increases the chance of dying at home and reduces symptom burden in particular for patients with cancer, without impacting on caregiver grief. This justifies providing home palliative care for patients who wish to die at home. More work is needed to study cost-effectiveness especially for people with non-malignant conditions, assessing place of death and appropriate outcomes that are sensitive to change and valid in these populations, and to compare different models of home palliative care, in powered studies.
Department of Palliative Care, Policy and Rehabilitation, Cicely Saunders Institute, King’s College London, London, UK. email@example.com.