Overview of TORCH infections
- Karen E Johnson, MD
Karen E Johnson, MD
- Associate Professor
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Section Editors
- Leonard E Weisman, MD
Leonard E Weisman, MD
- Section Editor — Neonatology
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
- Morven S Edwards, MD
Morven S Edwards, MD
- Section Editor — Pediatric Infectious Diseases
- Professor of Pediatrics
- Baylor College of Medicine
Infections acquired in utero or during the birth process are a significant cause of fetal and neonatal mortality and an important contributor to early and later childhood morbidity. The original concept of the TORCH perinatal infections was to group five infections with similar presentations, including rash and ocular findings . These five infections are:
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- Melish ME, Hanshaw JB. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Developmental progress of infants detected by routine screening. Am J Dis Child 1973; 126:190.
- Peckham CS, Chin KS, Coleman JC, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy: preliminary findings from a prospective study. Lancet 1983; 1:1352.
- Stagno S, Reynolds DW, Amos CS, et al. Auditory and visual defects resulting from symptomatic and subclinical congenital cytomegaloviral and toxoplasma infections. Pediatrics 1977; 59:669.
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- Kumar ML, Nankervis GA, Jacobs IB, et al. Congenital and postnatally acquired cytomegalovirus infections: long-term follow-up. J Pediatr 1984; 104:674.
- Boppana SB, Fowler KB, Pass RF, et al. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection: association between virus burden in infancy and hearing loss. J Pediatr 2005; 146:817.
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- Boppana SB, Pass RF, Britt WJ, et al. Symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1992; 11:93.
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- Boppana SB, Fowler KB, Vaid Y, et al. Neuroradiographic findings in the newborn period and long-term outcome in children with symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1997; 99:409.
- Williamson WD, Demmler GJ, Percy AK, Catlin FI. Progressive hearing loss in infants with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. Pediatrics 1992; 90:862.
- Fowler KB, McCollister FP, Dahle AJ, et al. Progressive and fluctuating sensorineural hearing loss in children with asymptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Pediatr 1997; 130:624.
- Coats DK, Demmler GJ, Paysse EA, et al. Ophthalmologic findings in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J AAPOS 2000; 4:110.
- Nelson CT, Istas AS, Wilkerson MK, Demmler GJ. PCR detection of cytomegalovirus DNA in serum as a diagnostic test for congenital cytomegalovirus infection. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33:3317.
- Demmler GJ, Buffone GJ, Schimbor CM, May RA. Detection of cytomegalovirus in urine from newborns by using polymerase chain reaction DNA amplification. J Infect Dis 1988; 158:1177.
- Bodéus M, Hubinont C, Bernard P, et al. Prenatal diagnosis of human cytomegalovirus by culture and polymerase chain reaction: 98 pregnancies leading to congenital infection. Prenat Diagn 1999; 19:314.
- Whitley RJ, Cloud G, Gruber W, et al. Ganciclovir treatment of symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection: results of a phase II study. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. J Infect Dis 1997; 175:1080.
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- Kimberlin DW, Lin CY, Sánchez PJ, et al. Effect of ganciclovir therapy on hearing in symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus disease involving the central nervous system: a randomized, controlled trial. J Pediatr 2003; 143:16.
- Prober CG, Enright AM. Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections: hats off to Alabama. J Pediatr 2003; 143:4.
- Nigro G, La Torre R, Anceschi MM, et al. Hyperimmunoglobulin therapy for a twin fetus with cytomegalovirus infection and growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1999; 180:1222.
- Wagner N, Kagan KO, Haen S, et al. Effective management and intrauterine treatment of congenital cytomegalovirus infection: review article and case series. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2014; 27:209.
- Plotkin SA. Vaccination against cytomegalovirus. Arch Virol Suppl 2001; :121.
- Reef SE, Plotkin S, Cordero JF, et al. Preparing for elimination of congenital Rubella syndrome (CRS): summary of a workshop on CRS elimination in the United States. Clin Infect Dis 2000; 31:85.
- Cherry JD, Adachi K. Rubella virus. In: Feigin and Cherry’s Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 7th, Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, et al. (Eds), Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia 2014. p.2195.
- Nickerson JP, Richner B, Santy K, et al. Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 2: TORCH, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. J Neuroimaging 2012; 22:e52.
- SCREENING FOR TORCH INFECTIONS
- CLINICAL FEATURES OF TORCH INFECTIONS
- Congenital toxoplasmosis
- Congenital syphilis
- Congenital rubella
- Congenital cytomegalovirus
- - Epidemiology
- - Transmission
- - Clinical manifestations
- - Diagnosis
- - Treatment
- Herpes simplex virus
- Congenital varicella syndrome
- APPROACH TO THE INFANT WITH SUSPECTED INTRAUTERINE INFECTION
- Clinical suspicion
- Initial evaluation
- Specific evaluation
- INFORMATION FOR PATIENTS