Overview of the use of osteoclast inhibitors in early breast cancer
- Catherine Van Poznak, MD
Catherine Van Poznak, MD
- Associate Professor Department of Internal Medicine
- University of Michigan
Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The prognosis of fully treated early breast cancer is usually very good, in part due to systemic therapies reducing the risk of recurrence. For example, in the United States, estimates are that over 89 percent of patients will survive five years or more following their initial diagnosis . Therefore, the long-term toxicities of breast cancer therapies need to be considered. (See "Adjuvant chemotherapy for HER2-negative breast cancer" and "Adjuvant systemic therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer" and "Adjuvant endocrine therapy for non-metastatic, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer".)
Systemic therapies used to treat early breast cancer can be associated with loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Bisphosphonates and denosumab are potent inhibitors of osteoclast activity, are approved for managing osteoporosis and bone metastases from a variety of malignancies, appear to prevent therapy-related bone loss, and complement nutritional (calcium and vitamin D), exercise, and lifestyle modifications. This topic will review the use of bisphosphonates and denosumab for preservation of bone mass in the adjuvant breast cancer setting. Adjuvant anticancer treatment modalities of breast cancer, methods to assess risk of fracture (eg, using history, physical exam, algorithms such as FRAX), imaging BMD, optimal intake of calcium and vitamin D, and the utility of osteoclast inhibitors in the management of breast cancer bone metastases are reviewed elsewhere. (See "Osteoporotic fracture risk assessment" and "Screening for osteoporosis" and "Calcium and vitamin D supplementation in osteoporosis" and "Prevention of osteoporosis", section on 'Minimizing bone loss' and "Osteoclast inhibitors for patients with bone metastases from breast, prostate, and other solid tumors".)
BREAST CANCER THERAPY-ASSOCIATED BONE LOSS
Women with a history of breast cancer may be at increased risk of osteoporosis secondary to the adjuvant systemic therapies administered [2-6]. Osteoporosis is associated with an increased risk of fracture and can be associated with significant morbidity, mortality, disfigurement and loss of self-esteem, and health care expenditure .
Estrogen, an important target for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer therapies, is also an important hormone for bone homeostasis. Therefore, anticancer therapies that decrease circulating estrogen levels or estrogen signaling may be associated with a decrease in bone mass.
Adjuvant systemic therapies for breast cancer that are associated with an increased risk for bone loss include [5,8]:
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- BREAST CANCER THERAPY-ASSOCIATED BONE LOSS
- Premenopausal women
- Postmenopausal women
- PREVENTION OF TREATMENT-RELATED BONE LOSS
- Premenopausal women with treatment-related bone loss
- Postmenopausal women with treatment-related bone loss
- IMPACT ON BREAST CANCER OUTCOMES
- - Efficacy
- - Is there a preferred bisphosphonate?
- - Efficacy
- TOXICITY ASSOCIATED WITH OSTEOCLAST INHIBITORS
- CLINICAL TRIALS
- SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS