Medline ® Abstracts for References 82,83
of 'Overview of the treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT)'
A meta-analysis of bed rest versus early ambulation in the management of pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, or both.
Aissaoui N, Martins E, Mouly S, Weber S, Meune C
Int J Cardiol. 2009 Sep;137(1):37-41. Epub 2008 Aug 8.
BACKGROUND: Bed rest is often recommended as part of the management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), though this recommendation is not clearly evidence-based.
METHODS: Using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, this meta-analysis considered all randomized studies and prospective registries that compared the outcomes of patients with DVT, PE, or both, managed with bed rest versus early ambulation, in addition to anticoagulation. For each study, data regarding the incidence of new PE, new or progression of DVT, and death from all causes, were used to calculate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
RESULTS: The 5 studies retained in this analysis included a total of 3048 patients. When compared to bed rest, early ambulation was not associated with a higher incidence of a new PE (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.65-1.63; p=0.90). Furthermore, early ambulation was associated with a trend toward a lower incidence of new PE and new or progression of DVT than bed rest (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.55-1.14; p=0.21) and lower incidence of new PE and overall mortality (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.402-1.56; p=0.50).
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with bed rest, early ambulation of patients with DVT, PE or both, was not associated with a higher risk of progression of DVT, new PE or death. This meta-analysis does not support the systematic recommendation of bed rest as part of the early management of patients presenting with DVT, PE of both.
Department of Cardiology, Cochin Hospital, AP-HP, RenéDescartes Paris V University, Paris, France.
Physical activity in patients with deep venous thrombosis: a systematic review.
Kahn SR, Shrier I, Kearon C
Thromb Res. 2008;122(6):763-73. Epub 2007 Dec 21.
OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review to assess the benefits or risks of physical activity in patients with an acute or previous DVT of the leg.
DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE and Science Citation Index were searched without language restrictions up to July 2007. Bibliographies of retrieved articles and personal files were also searched.
REVIEW METHODS: Randomized trials and prospective cohort studies that included patients with acute or previous DVT, described an exercise intervention or exercise exposure, and described any related clinical outcome were selected. Data were independently extracted by 2 investigators.
RESULTS: Seven randomized trials and two prospective observational studies were included. Early exercise, compared with bed rest, was associated with a similar short-term risk of pulmonary embolism in patients with acute DVT and led to more rapid resolution of limb pain. In patients with acute DVT, a 6 month daily walking program led to similar degrees of vein recanalization and improvement in quality of life as controls. In patients with previous DVT, 30 min of vigorous treadmill exercise did not worsen venous symptoms and improved calf muscle flexibility; a 6 month exercise training program improved calf muscle strength and pump function; and high levels of physical activity at one month tended to be associated with reduced severity of postthrombotic symptoms during the subsequent 3 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Early walking exercise is safe in patients with acute DVT and may help to reduce acute symptoms. Exercise training does not increase leg symptoms acutely in patients with a previous DVT and may help to prevent or improve the postthrombotic syndrome.
Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. email@example.com